Roman Structures > Aqueducts > Aqueduct of Luynes

Aqueduct of Luynes

Listen to this article ( info about the file )This audio file was created from the version of 22 August 2015 , and does not reflect the changes that have occurred since.( Help for sounds )→ More articles audioAqueduct LuynesView of the southern portion of the remains of the aqueduct [Note 1].View of the southern part of the remains of the aqueduct .LocationCountryFlag of France la FranceTypeAqueductProtectionmonument Logo Ranked MH ( 1862 )Contact information47 ° 23 '51 "North , 0 ° 34 '07 "EastGeolocation on the map: Indre-et-Loire(See vacation on map: Indre-et-Loire) Aqueduct Luynes Aqueduct LuynesGeolocation on the map: France(See vacation on map: France) Aqueduct Luynes Aqueduct Luynesedit See the documentation of the modelThe aqueduct of Luynes is an ancient aqueduct Gallo-Roman located in Luynes , in the department of Indre-et-Loire , in France . With the battery of Cinq-Mars is the most famous Roman monument of the department of Indre-et-Loire , despite the modest dimensions. It is also one of the best preserved ancient aqueducts north-western France. If he is frequently mentioned in scientific and tourist publications from the seventeenth century, it was not until 1966 that a full study of the book is completed and published. More recent work in the early 2000s, used to progress in the knowledge of this monument, but at the same time, raise new questions about its chronology and function.The aqueduct is the first airline to cross a valley on the slopes of which were located its likely catchments whose location is not precisely identified. It is this air party is known, in a reductive manner, as the waterworks Luynes: the remains in the form of forty-four batteries nine are still united by eight arches consecutive extend over a length about 270 meters, 500 meters on the aqueduct went about to cross the valley. Its downstream path, underground and along more than a kilometer, is not attested, although some clues were revealed by aerial photography, and his or her final destinations are unknown, within a vast complex of masonry ancient Site of Malliacum (Luynes in ancient times) that were the subject but that detailed specific studies.The date of construction is unknown, but it was obviously the subject of several campaigns of construction or repair; even he probably succeeded, at least on part of its journey, to one or more other structures whose nature and function are not determined; the hypothesis that would make one of these structures (continuous wall) the supporting wall of an earlier aqueduct is asked.Property of the town of Luynes, it is classified a historical monument in 1862.Summary1Malliacum, the ancient city of Luynes1.1The priory of Saint-Venant1.2The beach of Sainte-Roselle Clos1.3Toponymy and microtoponymy2Architecture and traced2.1Construction and features2.2Path, length and slope3Aqueduct Timeline4Remains and studies4.1State remains4.2Studies and archaeological excavations5Annexes5.1Bibliography5.2Related articles5.3External Links6References6.1Notes6.2ReferencesMalliacum, the ancient city of Luynes [ edit | edit the code ]Plan form the city accompagné partial drawing of a monument.Plan de Maille (Luynes) established by F. Royer Sauvagère in 1770, which saw it as the location Caesarodunum.Emprise supposedly an ancient institution Reported was modern map.Luynes and Malliacum .Luynes, about fifteen kilometers downstream of Tours, on the right bank of the Loire, on the hillside that overlooks it, is, in its contemporary layout, a medieval creation , but many ancient remains on the hillside to the east of the urban core, suggests the presence of significant buildings built in the Roman Empire . Other habitat remains were unearthed at the northern end of the municipality , .Malliacum is already mentioned in the sixth century by Gregory of Tours , who mentions the tomb of a Christian in the center of ancient buildings in the ruined hill ledge. Ruins are again mentioned in the eleventh century . Ancient walls of the panels, whose assignment is still unclear, are reported in the eighteenth century at the former priory of Saint-Venant . Others have been discovered since and aerial archaeological survey revealed new traces. If some of them appear to be those of rural settlements, others do not relate to any identified building.All these remains are part of an elongated rectangle of more than one kilometer long and two hundred meters wide, east of the modern town center of Luynes, on the tray flange of the right bank of the Loire. A path of Gallic ridge between Tours and Angers, crosses the site throughout its length; he was in a second time replaced by an ancient road at the foot of the hill . Even in the absence of evidence remains, the route of these two channels is very plausible .Such a concentration of remains can be interpreted in two ways. It can reveal the presence of a secondary agglomeration or witness to the presence of a large rural site incorporating monumental buildings. Some historians, including Félix Le Royer de La Sauvagère , had even imagined in the eighteenth century, it could be the ancient city of Caesarodunum , which later became Tours , . At that time, no trace of Caesarodunum had been formally identified at the site of the modern city of Tours, embodying the assumption of a capital of Gallo-Roman city built on the hillside. This proposal has since been totally abandoned, thanks to the discoveries made in the floor of Tours since the mid-nineteenth century.Among the many ancient ruins that dot the hillside east of the present town, two sets were subject to further investigation, although many questions still remain about them.The priory of Saint-Venant [ edit | edit the code ]View of a small castle emerging from the vegetation at a hillside.The Priory of Saint-Venant . The ancient ruins are buried in the vegetation, left the priory buildings.Gregory of Tours mentions the existence, in the first half of the sixth century, a priory built near the ancient ruins . Pierre Beaumesnil , actor and artist, published in 1784, by order of the Academy des inscriptions et belles-lettres , the Antiquities and Monuments collection of Touraine, 1784; it draws and describes these ruins: two massive walls at right angles, small device partially chanting of terracotta and beds that draw, at least on a side facing the Loire, a series of successive withdrawals . Until the early 2000s, this system is considered as a part of a secondary agglomeration or a vast rural habitat that one of the buildings have been transformed into Castellum the Lower Empire , whose function is to control the valley Loire below .In 2002, the review of the remains, the study of literature sources, published and unpublished, leads to question these initial proposals without further assumptions can be made: the site seems to have been built on an artificial terrace overlooking the valley Loire, successive additions appear to have been made to the masonry some of which appear earlier in the Lower Empire , the remains unearthed represent only a part of the ancient building ; Finally, should it be a defensive structure, it is surprising that no major masonry was never mentioned North side, the most exposed, while the west and south faces seem overly strengthened, given the natural defenses afforded by their proximity to the shelf edge. So it seems possible to see the twenty-first century, the ruins of Saint-Venant than a fort of the Lower Empire .A tank that Beaumesnil, like others after him, has described as ancient, is in the enclosure of the former priory, east of modern buildings. The existence of this tank is not questioned, but was substantially rebuilt and there is no evidence, review of its current state, to give it an ancient origin; it can not therefore be considered to fail as the end of the aqueduct, although this hypothesis has long prevailed , especially as its location, on the hillside, is at a level much too low for the water it contains can be used for a purpose other than strictly local .The seaside Clos Sainte-Roselle [ edit | edit the code ]In 1976 an aerial survey conducted by Jacques Dubois in Luynes sector highlights, about thirty meters north of the priory, clear traces in the cultures: the walls, some of which draw two apses , a room tiled .. . Will follow up to 1980 several excavations which, under the direction of Raymond Maugard, uncover a vast seaside including a frigidarium , a tepidarium and a caldarium , the latter two rooms heated by hypocaust , a swimming pool and a . section of sewer Frigidarium and caldarium ended with a semicircular apse; this detail discernable on aerial photographs, had facilitated the identification of buildings . This beach is the wing is a comprehensive housing also including courses, facilities, ancillary buildings , preserved by their reburial after study, the land being bought by the town in 1980 . Examination of ceramics found on the site allows to date this all years 150-180 .Dubbed by its inventors the villa of St. Roselle Clos, this important habitat is in the many ancient remains of the hill of Saint-Venant and raises the question of water supply from its seaside: the aqueduct of Luynes, in the monumental configuration that is best known, could have supplied .Toponymy and microtoponymy [ edit | edit the code ]Gregory of Tours, in the sixth century, mentions the existence of a Christian tomb surrounded by ancient ruins near the monastery de Maille (Luynes) as follows :[...] Apud Malliacense monasterium quod in cacumine montis is constructum, ab antiquis vallatum ædificiis erutis ubi jam [...]"[...] Near the monastery Malliacum, built atop a hill near the ancient fortified buildings already erected in this place [...]"The name of Malliacum is formed with the suffix - (i) acum, which generally precedes a sense of territorial possession. - (I) acum or rather * - (I) ACU has evolved into a form -é denoted as frequently in western France; Malliacum becomes Maille. The lordship and barony and finally the county keep this name until 1619. At that time, the county Maille is erected in the Duchy-peerage by letters patent of Louis XIII , in honor of Charles Albert , lord of Luynes (a district of Aix-en-Provence ), in the duchy of Luynes name .Michel Laurencin, in 1966, suggests that microtoponyms the Arena (also spelled the arennes) and Villeronde two lieudits lying on the aqueduct route, suggest a possible ancient circular building constructed nearby. This assumption is absolutely not confirmed archaeologically . A locality concealing a source close to the start of the aqueduct is mentioned in a manuscript of the seventeenth century, under the name Espinvelle. Patrick Bordeaux and Jacques Seigne offer to see the testimony of a valley lined with a thorny plant-based vegetation , place names attested in other locations by changing in Latin spina spinogilum . The authors approach this place name from that of the Black Pie or Pinnoire newest name of the same locality and which would be a phonetic transformation of the blackthorn, another name for blackthorn , . The Carroir whose name is the evolution of Latin quadrǔvium (crossing four lanes) could pull his name from that near crossed a Gallic path following the crest of the hill and another ancient road from the north to Luynes . For cons, the place called the Roman, below Saint-Venant, in the Loire Valley, not necessarily evidence of an ancient occupation: it is unlikely that habitat was installed in the flood area and above the place name is a recent creation of the nineteenth century .Architecture and layout [ edit | edit the code ]Construction and characteristics [ edit | edit the code ]Materials used [ change | modify the code ]The limestone blocks used to form the cladding and the building's core are extracted from limestone hillside; the rock that made them more solid. They could come from an old quarry filled on the plateau, near the sources of the aqueduct; this fact is not attested but local supply is likely, however .Cooked land in the architecture of the vaults of the arches do not meet the "standards" of the Gallo-Roman construction: their dimensions are unusual and they bear no signature in acknowledgment. A local manufacturing, as and when the site needs is likely, the required clay that can be extracted around , .The mortar binder masonry seems to be made of lime and sand Loire, both of which can be manufactured or extracted near the site ; the addition of broken tile in the binding mortar is not mentioned.Continuous wall [ edit | edit the code ]Already reported in 1960 but not localized specifically mentioned between two batteries in 1966 , the wall was identified in the southern part of the aqueduct in 2002, where it is enclosed by two massive masonry constituting the batteries but also during a restoration project in 2003, in the northern part on a length of about 20 m between four batteries. Off at least 0.80 m, it is kept at a maximum height of about 1.50 m when inserted into the masonry of piles, but only its foundations remain sometimes; it was most likely leveled before the batteries straddle - there is no evidence to rule on an intermediate phase of abandonment - and its original height is unknown, but it certainly is however lower than that of batteries . Even if there is evidence that occasionally it is possible that the monumental aqueduct has built some of the structures that wall . Its construction makes use of successive layers of small limestone blocks bound with lime mortar, without facing .The function of this wall is unknown - it was not even mentioned in the particulars of the 1960s - but the assumption that it could withstand the pipeline of a first state of the water is raised. If this event were to occur, this wall in his total elevation would be less high than the monumental aqueduct for strength reasons ; the technique of the bearing wall is reserved for situations where the pipeline should not go more than 2 or 3 m above the ground; Beyond, it is a cell system and arches which is retained . Crossing the valley to a lower altitude, the slope of the aqueduct would be stronger and shorter length than the monumental aqueduct successor, implying that the areas served or would be different .Batteries [ edit | edit the code ]View of a water battery slender pyramid. Gradual withdrawal of masonry, stairs, are Underlined.View of a stack profile.Masonry of the projections are represented by the yellow line .When built, the aqueduct would take about 90 cells over a length of 500 m. The highest batteries are those that are still connected by arches, as they are immediately north of the lowest point of the part of the valley crossed by the aqueduct; ditch passes under the aqueduct at this location . The height of these batteries is estimated at 8,90 m below key . Of all of the aerial part, the distances batteries range from about 4.50 to 4.90 m , .Unlike envisaged by Michel Laurencin , the batteries seem to rest on a foundation block in blocking unordered from a height of about 1 m ; however batteries foundations seem shallower than the continuous wall .While the architecture of these batteries has long been estimated homogeneous, studies conducted in 2002 (Bordeaux and Seigne) and 2003 (Chimier and Neury) showed that 44 cells visible in the early twenty-first century for a length of 270 m could be grouped into four architectural groups (EA) consistent, each with very specific characteristics . From south to north:the first two cells are characterized by their rectangular plan (0.96 × 0.96 × 1.70 m and 1.95 m), the largest dimension along the axis of the conduit;the following five cells have a square plan of 1.75 m apart;the following nine cells consist of two masonry massive contiguous on either side of the continuous wall; it is possible that these two beds are not contemporaneous. Of terracotta are incorporated into the construction of the upper part of the battery, close to the arches . Four of these batteries were changed after building . In 1966, Michel Laurencin interpreted the presence of these terracotta and masonry massive adjoining west batteries as witnesses of the aqueduct repair possible after subsidence or landslip . This hypothesis has so far neither been archaeologically attested nor disproved;all other cells have a facing of stones irregular, while the facing of the first three groups mentioned consists of stones of a very constant modulus; the holes bearers are observed only on the west and east sides of these batteries, while they are also present on the four faces of the batteries. Three of these batteries, studied more accurately, are built astride the wall; it is possible that the same design was adopted for other batteries of this EA, whose architecture seems very homogeneous , but the lack of study can not generalize.Apart from these differences, the batteries have several common characteristics:they affect the shape of a slender pyramid with four sides and truncated; on each of their faces, projections in the masonry, the number and location vary from one battery to another, are detected on the image view of a stack profile. They allow to gradually reduce the battery section and also seem to have the function of allowing a more reliable alignment of the top batteries for the arches and the pipe they contain are perfectly straight. This device, specifically described for some batteries in 2003 , appears to be generalized to all of the building ; the ultimate high jump observed in the inner surfaces of cells appears to have role to support the hangers used in the construction of arches ;Facing a rectangular limestone blocks encloses a lock core consists of various sizes of materials related to cement lime; the core component stones can be arranged in more or less regular courses.Arches and channel [ edit | edit the code ]View of the roof of an aqueduct arch in alternating brick and stone.Detail of the roof of an arch .The opening of the roof arches is about 3 m, which varies the distance between the batteries.The construction of arches, observed on eight arches still in place - whether original or rebuilt - uses a blocking concrete covered in small rather crude device, while only the arches arches semicircular include radiating bricks. These terracotta, assembled in groups of two, have a strictly rectangular section, as well as limestone blocks between which they are inserted. The curvature of the intrados of the vaults appears to be obtained by varying the thickness of the joints . In the northern part of the aqueduct, the primer still visible arches atop isolated batteries allow to propose similar equipment .Examination of collapsed piles of debris suggests that water circulated in a masonry channel established at the top of the arches and batteries. This duct ( specus ) measures only 10 to 12 cm wide; its height is not established . This device, cheaper to build and easier to maintain that pottery pipes, for example, seems to have been chosen for the vast majority of aqueducts, public and private . It is impossible to know, given the information available in 2015, what was the structure of this channel, its potential inside waterproof coating, and it was covered or if the water circulating in the air.Route, length and slope [ edit | edit the code ]Drawing an ancient aqueduct was the carried modern map.Can return the route of the aqueduct .The remains of the aqueduct are located on the edge is a town road, 1.5 km northeast of the center of Luynes , in Indre-et-Loire .Captured Sources [ edit | edit the code ]Northeast immediate air section of the aqueduct, the sector of the Pie Noire, or Pinnoire, at an average altitude of 90 m, is known since the eighteenth century the number of small sources . Within this set, the source of the Pie Noire itself, the waters, from a kind of well, still flowing, a little further, in a circular building 2 m in diameter can be likened to a settling tank from the aqueduct, seems to have been the main source received. His speed, in modern times, seems weak but constant, whatever the climatic conditions; the stream resulting therefrom is now heading south-east to reach the bottom of trough . A survey of trench made in the early 2000s, shows that the source of Claire-Fontaine, close to the previous one, was able to compete to supply the aqueduct . Archaeologists and historians believe, however, and for a long time, as other sources, not yet formally identified, could power the water .Aqueduct [ edit | edit the code ]View of the remains of an ancient aqueduct along a road.General view of the northern part of the aqueduct.It grows from north-northeast to south-southwest ( azimuth 195 °) , between farm of the Pie Noire and the hamlet of Villeronde on an initial estimated 500 m in length even if the section the remaining twenty-first century will measure more than about 270 m . It crosses the western part of a valley whose profile altimeter on the aqueduct route, regularly descends 85 m near the source of 75 m after 400 m to go up to the altitude of 80 m on last hundred meters. The trough of this valley is to the south, deeply indented the hill beneath which lies the major bed of the Loire .The aqueduct is bordered to the west by a modern town road.Underground aqueduct [ edit | edit the code ]Very little is known of the underground part of the aqueduct. If the starting point - where the water comes out of the valley, which required the construction of a bridge - is little doubt, if the north-northeast route - south-southwest was partially revealed through exploration by aerial photography or its length or its slope is not proven. Assumptions were issued but the precise knowledge of these two parameters for certification imply its final destination, and this is not the case. Similarly, the material that makes up this part of the pipe - clay pipes, pouring in masonry then covered trench, covered gutter tiles, etc. - not known. In 1770, La Sauvagère mention of the aqueduct remains in nearby vineyards of the priory of Saint-Venant, but did not specify the nature . In the early nineteenth century, farmers have reported finding cooked earth pipes "heading towards the priory of Saint-Venant" 2 to 3 m deep during agricultural work . In the first half of the twentieth century, a V-shaped pipe made and covered with tiles have been unearthed in the north of the priory . In the absence of clarification on these findings, which could not be presented, such testimony should be treated with extreme caution.Final Destination [ edit | edit the code ]antique statuettes group Including That of a young naked woman wringing her hair.Group with a representation of Venus Anadyomene (iv century).Musée du Louvre , Paris .If the hypothesis developed in the most recent studies, at least two successive states of the aqueduct was to verify the architectural features of the remains in the crossing of the valley would suggest that the end point is different between the first and the second state.The aqueduct, in its first state, integrating the wall as continuous bedrock of its pipeline, could have resulted in the sector Panchien - ancient remains, a statuette of Venus Anadyomene among others , , have were discovered in the early twentieth century - which would give this water a substantially straight route north-northeast-south southwest between its source and its goal .Given the wealth of ancient archaeological edge of the hillside of Luynes, where the presence of a large institution or a secondary agglomeration is probable, it seems logical to suggest that the outcome of the aqueduct of Luynes in its second state was monumental, after amendment and shift to the southeast of its route from Villeronde, lie within this complex, and probably in its western part, under the direction taken by the aqueduct. Final destination of assumptions have been made: the reservoir of the former priory of Saint-Venant, the seaside of the house Clos Sainte-Roselle , . None has yet been verified. Do not dismiss either the possibility that the destination of the aqueduct has evolved over the decades, even centuries.It is also possible to imagine an aqueduct multiple locations, but the low rate that is granted Lau 9 , although not measurable, not arguing in favor of this hypothesis. The total length of 1825 m sometimes assigned to the aqueduct in the bibliography is the assumption of a departure for the Pinnoire and a culmination in the tank of the priory of Saint-Venant 24 . The most recent publications are more reserved and giving this aqueduct a "length estimated at 1900 m about" Bdx 10 .Slope and speed of the aqueduct [ edit | edit the code ]The slope of the aerial part of the aqueduct, estimated from the presumed location of the (or) source (s) and taking into account the height of fully conserved batteries, amounted to 1.5 m / km 7 . This value may seem high, but it is not exceptional: the slope of the aqueduct of Yzeron locally reaches 16.8 m / km Evil 3 By cons, it is not possible to make a rate proposal. the aqueduct; if the width of the channel seems almost certain, that the slope is known, it lacks a parameter needed to apply the formula of Bazin : in the absence of evidence remains, the height that water could reach in the channel can be estimated (traces of concretions on canal walls would have been such a good indicator).The slope of the second part, underground, the aqueduct, can not be measured: the route is not known with certainty and the outcome not attested point. Assumptions (slope of 2.92 m / km 24 ) are not verifiable in terms of archaeological data available. However, it seems likely that the slope of this section of the water was higher than that of the aerial part. Anyway, the average slope of the aqueduct seems to be higher than for most of the longest aqueducts of the Roman Empire , but more in line with that observed for the shortest aqueducts Lau 10 .Chronology of the aqueduct [ edit | edit the code ]View of an ancient relic and below the same image with a color code showing the differences masonry.View of a composite stack of the aqueduct. continuous wall Massif west MassifIn 2015, no precise dating of this monument antique can be offered.Towards the middle of the xix th century, dating two proposals were issued either before iv th century or the Carolingian period or even later 25 . In 1960, Jacques Boussard, resuming the previous bibliography entries, estimated that the aqueduct, as it stands, was built in a single campaign and could be dated relatively late, perhaps ii E or iii th century. This assumption was based on the review of its building style compared to the priory of Saint-Venant, then considered the culmination of the aqueduct 17 . Michel Laurencin evoked "a start of construction in iii e or iv th century" Lau 11 .These assumptions are not confirmed by the most recent studies, although Patrick Bordeaux and Jacques Seigne, in 2002, took over the date of a building to 150 for the monumental aqueduct Bdx 8 , Note 7 . The construction of the aqueduct far from being uniform, seems to have taken place in several stages, also including repairs of previously constructed parties; reflected in the structure of cells that can be grouped into several "groups of buildings" (EA) homogeneous. A relative dating of these EA is outlined, but there is nothing to assign them an absolute dating Ch 3 .The aqueduct seems to have remained in service until the xiii th century and a diploma of Charles the Simple (King of France 898-922) dated 919 mentions remedies that are made him Lau 11 . Such usage time certainly involves changes in the destination of the water he could carry.The breakthrough made possible by the latest studies and excavations is the demonstration of a continuous wall, leveled on a part of the air route of monumental aqueduct. This wall, already previously reported Lau 4 , is interpreted as a vestige of an earlier aqueduct, probably exploiting the same sources, crossed the valley at a height may be less important and therefore was built with a length, slope and end point different Bdx 10 . Likewise, some batteries consist of two massive masonry on either side of the continuous wall, which do not seem contemporary without being able to specify dating; This observation opens the way to the hypothesis of a third building at the same location, it may also have been an aqueduct Bdx 8 .Remains and studies [ edit | edit the code ]View of a battery succession and arches of an ancient aqueduct crossing a valley.General overview of the aqueduct remains (looking east).State remains [ edit | edit the code ]postcard in black and white representing the ruined arches of an aqueduct.Remains of the aqueduct at the beginning of xx th century Note 8 .(Reproduction of an old postcard.)The aqueduct owned by the town of Luynes Mag 2 , is listed as a historical monument since 1862 1 .His condition is deteriorating over time: it counts, in 2015, 44 batteries for approximately 90 originally 62 in 1767 and 53 in 1882 26 ; nine of these stacks, consecutive, are always connected by eight semicircular arches while others collapsed, are reduced to the stone heap condition or lost altogether, as in the northern part of the monument. Photographs Bdx 11 sometimes reproduced in postcards, drawings D00 4 and literature references 27 indicate that at the xix th century to the early 1930s, only 6 arches were in place. Two others were therefore rebuilt to an indefinite time, but after the end of World War II , probably as part of a restoration campaign Bdx 6 . All locally showing signs of weakness despite recent repair work , including the recovery of several stacks 28 , stones falling regularly Mag 2 and more batteries are slightly inclined to the east. The main reason is to be found in the structural weakness of the foundations that do not exceed 1 m deep on the west side and 0.80 m on the east side, in an unstable soil, clay and very humid; the presence of a raised and stabilized road west of the aqueduct, limits its foundations, and low ground moisture subject to large variations in the east, joined the action westerlies, accentuates this phenomenon, according to Arnaud de Saint-Jouan, chief architect of historical monuments Mag 3 .Immediately north of the batteries always crowned by their arches, the gable of a farmhouse built in 1877 is partly embedded between the bridge piers ( farm Aqueduct , formerly borderie of arennes 29 ).Remains of the aqueduct of Luynes (selection).View of inclined piles.Inclined battery remains Note 9 .Close view of an ancient masonry Small irregular device.Detail of a cell (north part of the aqueduct) Note 10 .For irregular masonry stack.Pile north of the aqueduct irregular siding.View of a very regular masonry stack.Battery south of the aqueduct regular siding Note 11 .View of a rectangular cell, the very regular siding.Stack of rectangular section at very regular siding.View of a square cell, including terracotta in its upper part.Square cell Note 12 .View of gable of a partially engaged between two farm ruined aqueduct batteries.The farm Aqueduct .View of a stack of an aqueduct still topped by the start of an arch.Pile and Arc Starter.Click on a thumbnail to enlargeStudies and archaeological excavations [ edit | edit the code ]Watercolor Gaignières (1699).This list is not exhaustive, is intended to highlight the main entries and nature studies to show the evolution of knowledge about the aqueduct.In 1699, François Roger de Gaignières among the many drawings which he is the author made several watercolors Luynes having to subject, including one representing the aqueduct, accompanied by a short blurb Note 13 . This watercolor reveals that the conservation status of the aerial part of the aqueduct, a few batteries around, is not very different at the end of the xvii th century it is the xxi th century.Félix Le Royer de La Sauvagère in his Collection of Antiquities in Gaul ... published in 1770, devotes several pages to the description of the aqueduct of Luynes and boards illustrations representative. Some of the historical assumptions that develops as the assimilation between Malliacum and Caesarodunum are from the xix th century battered in breach Note 14 .Drawing stacks and arches diagrammed an ancient aqueduct.General plan of the aqueduct of Luynes designed by Félix Le Royer de La Sauvagère in 1770 Roy 3 .In 1818, Jean-Louis Chalmel imagine, on the heights of Luynes, the presence of a camp of Caesar's army. He sees the aqueduct a device for supplying the camp and that date44 av. J.-C. . This version, that Chalmel abandon himself, is totally denied.It is in the context of a memory master's degree Michel Laurencin realized in 1966 the first comprehensive study of the aqueduct, confronting publications already appeared in the reality of field observations, published or unpublished. He writes a synthesis of architecture and the layout of the building, offers new hypotheses about its date, its starting and ending points and function Note 15 .In 1976 an aerial survey campaign by Jacques Dubois leads to the discovery of the dwelling of the Holy Roselle Clos . René Maugard search the site for six years from 1977 and brings to light, among others, a beach which is considered one of the hypothetical outcomes of the aqueduct; the results of these excavations is not the subject of wide distribution D03 4 , 31 .Jacques Dubois, favored an aerial survey in 1993, as he regularly performs since 1967 over Luynes D03 7 , discovers vegetation anomalies in cultures that testify, he said, the route of the underground part of aqueduct over a length of 300 m D03 3 .It was in 2000 that Jacques Dubois provides a synthesis of knowledge on Luynes in ancient times; it integrates the oldest documents, added the discoveries related to housing of Sainte-Roselle - the comprehensive results of these excavations were not published by their author - whose resort is now seen as a point of possible outcome for the aqueduct Note 16 .In 2002, Patrick and Jacques Seigne Bordeaux benefit from the study of unpublished archives and new observations on the ancient ruins of Luynes to take stock of the state of knowledge about Malliacum . They update the data on the aqueduct, and in particular on the continuous wall that might have preceded Note 17 .picture icon external ImageThe aqueduct in compensation in 2003 on the site of FondettesIn 2003, prior to a restore operation of three piles threatened with collapse, Jean-Philippe and Patrick Chimier Neury ( National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research - INRAP) conduct a protective search operation on these three piles: they highlight the presence of the continuous wall in the most upstream area of the aerial part of the aqueduct, where it had not yet reported, and refine the architectural study of the monument batteries and their categorization Note 18 . the results of this study were presented to the public, including Luynes in 2011, on the occasion of a lecture by the responsible archaeologists the site 32 .Annexes [ edit | edit the code ]References [ change | modify the code ]Document used for writing A document used as a source for writing this article.Publications specifically devoted to ancient remains of Luynes [ edit | edit the code ][Anonymous], " The Aqueduct of Luynes, from the Gallo-Roman age in 2000 ," the magazine of Touraine , n o 74, March 2000 , P. 19-26 ( ISSN 0293-1389 ) . Document used for writingPatrick Bordeaux and Jacques Seigne , " New observations on the ancient remains of Luynes ," Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Touraine , vol. XLVIII, 2002 , P. 35-50 ( ISSN 1149-4670 , read online ) . Document used for writingJean-Philippe Chimier and Patrick Neury " Luynes The ancient aqueduct (Indre-et-Loire), study of cells 32, 33 and 35. Executive Summary ," Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Touraine , Vol. LII, 2006 , P. 127-134 ( ISSN 1149-4670 , read online ) . Document used for writingJacques Dubois , " The Roman relics of Luynes ," Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Touraine , Vol. XLVI, 2000 , P. 95-121 ( ISSN 1149-4670 , read online ) . Document used for writingMichel Laurencin , " The Luynes Gallo-Roman aqueduct ," Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Touraine , Vol. XXXIV, 1966 , P. 335-349 ( read online ) . Document used for writingMichel Laurencin , " The aqueduct Gallo-Roman Luynes and the ancient city of Malliacum (Indre-et-Loire) ," Archaeological Review of central France , t. VI, Issue 3, 1967 ( DOI 10.3406 / racf.1967.1375 ) .Michel Laurencin, " Research on the site Malliacum and water supply in the Gallo-Roman era ," national Learned Societies Conference , Tours, n o 93 1968 , P. 31-41 ( read online ) .Specific publications on archeology and history Touraine [ edit | edit the code ]Jean-Mary Couderc ( ed. ), Dictionary of Commons of Touraine , Chambray-lès-Tours, CLD, 1987 , 967 p. ( ISBN 2 85443 136-7 ) .Jacques Dubois, Aerial Archaeology: Heritage Touraine , Alan Sutton, 2003 208 p. ( ISBN 2 264 84910 4 ) . Document used for writingMichel Provost , Archaeological Map of the Gaul - The Indre-et-Loire , Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, 1988 141 p. ( ISBN 2 002 87754 2 ) .Robert Ranjard , Archaeological Touraine , Printing Material Handling, 1986 735 p. ( ISBN 978 2855 54017 7 ) .General publications totally or partially devoted to architecture and urbanism in the Roman Empire [ edit | edit the code ]Robert Bedon, Pierre Pinon and Raymond Chevallier , Architecture and Urbanism in Roman Gaul: The architecture and the city , vol. 1, Paris, Wandering, coll. "Hesperides" 1988 440 p. ( ISBN 2903 44279 7 ) .Michèle Blanchard Lemée, General Collection of mosaics Gaul II: Lyonnaise Province, 4. Western part , Paris, Editions du CNRS, 1991 149 p. ( ISBN 2-222-04437-5 ) .Gerard Coulon , The Gallo-Romans , Paris, Wandering, coll. "Civilizations and Cultures" 2006 219 p. ( ISBN 2-877-72331-3 ) .Georges Duby ( dir. ), History of urban France , Vol. 1: The ancient city, from its origins to ix th century , Paris, Seuil, coll. "The historical universe" 1980 601 p. ( ISBN 2020 05590 2 ) .Alain Malissard, Roman and water , Paris, Les Belles Lettres, coll. "Realia" 2002 344 p. ( ISBN 2251 33814 4 ) . Document used for writingFélix Le Royer de La Sauvagère , Collection of Antiquities in Gaul, enriched with various boards and figures, plans, views, cards & other designs, to serve the intelligence has inscriptions of these antiques. Book that can be used on the Antiques of the late Count of Caylus , Paris, Herissant the son, 1770 , 472 p. , P. 137-157 and pl. XV .Ancient sources [ edit | edit the code ]( A ) Gregory of Tours , Opera Liber in gloria confessorum , Hannover, W. Arndt and Bruno Krusch, 1884-1885Related articles [ edit | edit the code ]List of historical monuments of the Indre-et-Loire (KZ)List of Historical Monuments 1862External links [ edit | edit the code ]On the other Wikimedia projects:Luynes Aqueduct on Wikimedia CommonsOfficial website of the Town Hall of Luynes

Roman Aqueducts

Roman Aqueducts List

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