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Provincia Iudaea

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The Roman province of Judea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian Yehûḏāh; Arabic: يهودا‎‎; Greek: Ἰουδαία; Latin: Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Judæa, Judaea or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel. It was named after Herod Archelaus's Tetrarchy of Judea, but the Roman province encompassed a much larger territory. The name "Judea" was derived from the Kingdom of Judah of the 6th century BCE.Judea province was the scene of unrest at its founding in 6 CE during the Census of Quirinius and several wars were fought in its history, known as the Jewish–Roman wars. The Temple was destroyed in 70 CE as part of the Great Jewish Revolt resulting in the institution of the Fiscus Judaicus, and after Bar Kokhba's revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina, which certain scholars conclude was an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region.[1][2]Contents [hide]1Relations with Hasmonean and Herodian dynasties2Judea as Roman province(s)3List of Governors (CE 6–135)4See also5References6External linksRelations with Hasmonean and Herodian dynasties[edit]Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, by Jean FouquetThe first intervention of Rome in the region dates from 63 BCE, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War, when Rome made a province of Syria. After the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus, Pompey (Pompey the Great) sacked Jerusalem and established Hasmonean prince Hyrcanus II as Ethnarch and High Priest, but he was denied the title of King. A later appointment by Julius Caesar was Antipater the Idumaean, also known as Antipas, as the first Roman Procurator. Herod the Great, Antipater's son, was designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE.[3] He did not gain military control until 37 BCE. During his reign the last representatives of the Hasmoneans were eliminated, and the great port of Caesarea Maritima was built.[citation needed]He died in 4 BCE, and his kingdom was divided mostly among three of his sons, who became tetrarchs ("rulers of a quarter part", or in this case rather of "thirds"). One of these tetrarchies was Judea corresponding to the territory of the historic Judea, plus Samaria and Idumea. Herod's son Herod Archelaus, ruled Judea so badly that he was dismissed in 6 CE by the Roman emperor Augustus, after an appeal from his own population. Another, Herod Antipas, ruled as tetrarch of Galilee and Perea from 4 BCE to 39 CE, being then dismissed by Caligula. The third tetrarch, Herod's son Philip, ruled over the northeastern part of his father's kingdom.[citation needed]Judea as Roman province(s)[edit]The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117–138 CE), showing, in western Asia, the Roman province of Iudaea. 1 legion deployed in 125.Part of a series on theHistory of IsraelThe Western Wall, JerusalemAncient Israel and JudahPrehistory Canaan Israelites United monarchy Northern Kingdom Kingdom of Judah Babylonian ruleSecond Temple period (530 BCE–70 CE)Persian rule Hellenistic period Hasmonean dynasty Herodian dynasty Kingdom Tetrarchy Roman JudeaMiddle Ages (70–1517)Roman Palaestina Byzantine Palaestina Prima Secunda Sasanian conquest Caliphates Filastin Urdunn Crusades Ayyubid dynasty Mamluk SultanateModern history (1517–1948)Ottoman rule Eyalet Mutasarrifate Old Yishuv Zionism OETA British mandateState of Israel (1948–present)Independence Timeline Years Arab–Israeli conflict Start-up NationHistory of the Land of Israel by topicJudaism Jerusalem Zionism Jewish leaders Jewish warfare NationalityRelatedJewish history Hebrew calendar Archaeology Museums Israel portalv t eIn 6 CE Archelaus' tetrachy (Judea, plus Samaria and Idumea)[4] came under direct Roman administration. Even though Iudaea is simply derived from the Latin for Judea, many historians use it to distinguish the Roman province from the previous territory and history. Iudaea province did not initially include Galilee, Gaulanitis (the Golan), nor Peraea or the Decapolis. Its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, but it controlled the land and coastal sea routes to the bread basket Egypt and was a border province against the Parthian Empire because of the Jewish connections to Babylonia (since the Babylonian exile). The capital was at Caesarea (Maritima),[5] not Jerusalem. Quirinius became Legate (Governor) of Syria and conducted the first Roman tax census of Syria and Iudaea, which was opposed by the Zealots.[6] Iudaea was not a Senatorial province, nor exactly an Imperial province, but instead was a "satellite of Syria"[7] governed by a prefect who was a knight of the equestrian order (as was Roman Egypt), not a former consul or praetor of senatorial rank.[8] Pontius Pilate, whose name was recorded in the Pilate Stone, was one of these prefects, from 26 to 36 CE. Still, Jews living in the province maintained some form of independence and could judge offenders by their own laws, including capital offences, until circa 28 CE.[9] The Province of Judea, during the late Second Temple period was also divided into five conclaves, or administrative districts: 1) Jerusalem (ירושלם), 2) Gadara (גדרה), 3) Amathus (עמתו), 4) Jericho (יריחו), 5) Sepphoris ( צפורין).[10]Caiaphas was one of the appointed High Priests of Herod's Temple, being appointed by the Prefect Valerius Gratus in 18. Both were deposed by the Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius in 36 CE.The 'Crisis under Caligula' (37–41) has been proposed as the first open break between Rome and the Jews.[11]Between 41 and 44 CE, Iudaea regained its nominal autonomy, when Herod Agrippa was made King of the Jews by the emperor Claudius, thus in a sense restoring the Herodian Dynasty, though there is no indication Iudaea ceased to be a Roman province simply because it no longer had a prefect. Claudius had decided to allow, across the empire, procurators, who had been personal agents to the Emperor often serving as provincial tax and finance ministers, to be elevated to governing magistrates with full state authority to keep the peace. He elevated Iudaeas's procurator whom he trusted to imperial governing status because the imperial legate of Syria was not sympathetic to the Judeans.[12]Following Agrippa's death in 44 CE, the province returned to direct Roman control, incorporating Agrippa's personal territories of Galilee and Peraea, under a row of procurators. Nevertheless, Agrippa's son, Agrippa II was designated King of the Jews in 48. He was the seventh and last of the Herodians.From 70 CE until 135 CE, Iudaea's rebelliousness required a governing Roman legate capable of commanding legions. Because Agrippa II maintained loyalty to the Empire, the Kingdom was retained until he died, either in 93/94 or 100, when the area returned to complete, undivided Roman Empire control.Judaea was the stage of two, possibly three major rebellions against Roman rule :66–70 CE - first rebellion, ending in the siege of Jerusalem and the destruction of Herod's Temple (see Great Jewish Revolt, Josephus). Before the war Judaea was a Roman province of the third category, that is, under the administration of a procurator of equestrian rank and under the overall control of the governor of Syria. After the war it became an independent Roman province with the official name of Judaea and under the administration of a governor of praetorian rank, and was therefore moved up into the second category (it was only later, in about 120 CE, that Judaea became a consular province, that is, with a governor of consular rank).[13]115–117 CE - second rebellion, called Kitos War; Judaea's role in it is disputed though, as it played itself out mainly in the Jewish diaspora and there are no fully trustworthy sources on Judaea's participation in the rebellion, nor is there any archaeological way of distinguishing destruction levels of 117 CE from those of the large Bar Kokhba revolt of just a decade and a half later.132–135 CE - third rebellion, Bar Kokhba's revoltFollowing the suppression of Bar Kokhba's revolt, the emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem became Aelia Capitolina which Hayim Hillel Ben-Sasson states was done to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to the region.[1]Under Diocletian (284-305) the region was divided into three provinces :[14]Palaestina Prima (Judea, Samaria, Idumea, Peraea and the coastal plain, with Caesarea Maritima as capital)Palaestina Secunda (Galilee, Decapolis and Golan, with Beth-Shean as capital)Palaestina Tertia (the Negev desert, with Petra as capital).List of Governors (CE 6–135)[edit]NameReignLength of ruleCategoryCoponius6–93Roman PrefectMarcus Ambivulus9–123Roman PrefectAnnius Rufus12–153Roman PrefectValerius Gratus15–2611Roman PrefectPontius Pilate26–3610Roman PrefectMarcellus36–371Roman PrefectMarullus37–414Roman PrefectAgrippa I41–443King of JudaeaCuspius Fadus44–462Roman ProcuratorTiberius Julius Alexander46–482Roman ProcuratorVentidius Cumanus48–524Roman ProcuratorMarcus Antonius Felix52–608Roman ProcuratorPorcius Festus60–622Roman ProcuratorLucceius Albinus62–642Roman ProcuratorGessius Florus64–662Roman ProcuratorMarcus Antonius Julianus66–70 (dates uncertain)4Roman ProcuratorSextus Vettulenus Cerialis70–711Roman LegateLucilius Bassus71–721Roman LegateLucius Flavius Silva72–819Roman LegateM. Salvidenus80–855Roman LegateCnaeus Pompeius Longinusc.861Roman LegateSextus Hermetidius Campanusc.931Roman LegateTiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes99–1023Roman LegateGaius Julius Quadratus Bassus102–1042Roman LegateQuintus Pompeius Falco105–1072Roman LegateTiberianus114–1173Roman LegateLusius Quietus117-1203Roman LegateLucius Cossonius Gallus1201Roman LegateQuintus Tineius Rufus132–1353Roman LegateSextus Julius Severusc.1351Roman LegateNot to be confused with the geographical region of Judea.Provincia IudaeaProvince of the Roman Empire←6 CE–135 CE →Location of JudeaCapitalCaesarea Maritima32°30′N 34°54′ECoordinates: 32°30′N 34°54′EJudea, the land from which the Jews take their name, was located in the Levant in what is today the present state of Israel on the Mediterranean coast that lies beyond Jordan, along the western edge of Arabia, bordering on Egypt in northeastern Africa. There the Jews lived for nearly 1000 years until they were eventually expelled and driven into exile by the Romans against whose rule the Jewish people repeatedly rebelled. In consequence of these rebellions, the Roman Empire crushed the Jewish uprisings, destroying their most sacred site, the temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD, and driving the Jews out of Judea, sending them wandering throughout other parts of the Roman Empire.Once the Jews had been driven out of Jerusalem, they soon re-established their former trade connections and set themselves up as merchants and traders operating throughout the Roman Empire and abroad, continuing to practice their native religion of Judaism and refusing to assimilate into the societies that they settled in and profited from. They also brought with them the recently formed Jewish cult of Christianity which soon spread outside of the Jewish diaspora and was adopted by many members of the slave class in ancient Roman society who found Christianity's doctrine of equality and brotherhood as appealing as the Christian admonishment condemning those who sought to increase their worldly riches and power over others. Christianity was brought to Ethiopia by Frumentius, a Lebanese-born Christian who became the first Bishop of Axum, and saw Christianity become the state religion of Ethiopia in the year 330 AD.Wherever the Jews settled they soon garnered the animosity of those who they lived among, owing to their unscrupulous business practices and usury. Writing in the first century, the Roman geographer Strabo said of them: "These Jews have penetrated into every city, and it would be difficult to find a single place in the inhabited world that has not received this race, and where it has not become master."The first century Roman historian Tacitus also held a similarly unfavorable opinion of them, saying: "The practices of the Jews are malevolent and despicable, and have entrenched themselves by their very degeneracy. Deviants of the most depraved kind who had no use for the religion of their predecessors, they took to collecting dues and contributions in order to swell the Jewish treasury; and other reasons for their increasing wealth may be found in their unrelenting loyalty and eager nepotism towards fellow Jews. But all the rest of the world they hold in contempt with the hatred reserved for enemies. They will not feed or intermarry with gentiles. Despite being overtly lustful as a race, the Jews shun carnal dealings with women foreign to their tribe. Among their own kind however, nothing is forbidden. They have adopted the practice of circumcision to show that they are different from others. Those seeking to convert to Judaism adopt the same practices, and the very first lesson they are taught is to despise the gods, shed all feelings of patriotism, and consider parents, children and brothers as readily expendable. However, the Jews make certain that their population increases."According to the 9th century Persian geographer, Ibn Khordadbeh in his The Book of Roads and Kingdoms, Jewish merchants embarking from the ports of southern France, would carry cargoes of slaves, brocades, and furs to the markets of Constantinople, Alexandria, and Damascus. The more venturesome would then proceed by caravan across the Fertile Crescent and sail from the Persian Gulf as far as India and China, to return with "musk, aloe, wood, camphor, cinnamon, and other products of the eastern countries" for distribution in the lands to the West.Long before Christianity was introduced to Europe by the religion's Jewish founders, Jews from Israel had already established themselves in parts of what was the ancient Roman Empire, as merchants, money-lenders, traders, actors, and entertainers; often traveling from village to village plying their trade and accumulating wealth. With the adoption of Christianity as the official state religion of the Roman Empire in the 4th century AD, the Jews who had migrated to Europe emerged as the principle source of financing, as the Christian Church strictly forbid Christians from charging interest on loans; but the Jews were exempt from this prohibition and were allowed to freely engage in usury, accumulating vast fortunes through the interest they charged on the money they lent.Judea or Judæa (/dʒuːˈdiː.ə/;[1] from Hebrew: יהודה‎, Standard Yəhuda Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Greek: Ἰουδαία, Ioudaía; Latin: IVDÆA, Arabic: يهودا‎, Yahudia) is the ancient biblical, Roman, and modern name of the mountainous southern part of Palestine. The name originates from the Hebrew, Canaanite and later neo-Babylonian and Persian name "Yehudah" or "Yehud" for the biblical Israelite tribe of Judah (Yehudah) and associated Kingdom of Judah, which the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia dates from 934 until 586 BCE.[2] The name of the region continued to be incorporated through the Babylonian conquest, Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman periods as Yehud, Yehud Medinata, Hasmonean Judea, and consequently Herodian Judea and Roman Judea, respectively.As a consequence of the Bar Kokhba revolt, in 135 CE the region was renamed and merged with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina by the victorious Roman Emperor Hadrian. A large part of Judea was included in Jordanian West Bank between 1948 to 1967 (i.e., the "West Bank" of the Kingdom of Jordan).[3][4] The term Judea as a geographical term was revived by the Israeli government in the 20th century as part of the Israeli administrative district name Judea and Samaria Area for the territory generally referred to as the West Bank.[5]Contents [hide]1Etymology2Historical boundaries3Geography4History4.1Early Iron Age4.2Persian and Hellenistic periods4.3Roman conquest4.4Bar Kokhba revolt4.5Byzantine period5Timeline6See also7References8External linksEtymologyThe name Judea is a Greek and Roman adaptation of the name "Judah", which originally encompassed the territory of the Israelite tribe of that name and later of the ancient Kingdom of Judah. Nimrud Tablet K.3751, dated c.733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah (written in Assyrian cuneiform as Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a).Judea was sometimes used as the name for the entire region, including parts beyond the river Jordan.[6] In 200 CE Sextus Julius Africanus, cited by Eusebius (Church History 1.7.14), described "Nazara" (Nazareth) as a village in Judea.[7]"Judea" was the name used by English-speakers until the Jordanian occupation of the area in 1948.[citation needed] Jordan called the area ad-difa’a al-gharbiya (translated into English as the "West Bank").[8] "Yehuda" is the Hebrew term used for the area in modern Israel since the region was captured and occupied by Israel in 1967.[9]Historical boundariesThe Judean hillsThe classical Roman-Jewish historian Josephus wrote:In the limits of Samaria and Judea lies the village Anuath, which is also named Borceos. This is the northern boundary of Judea. The southern parts of Judea, if they be measured lengthways, are bounded by a village adjoining to the confines of Arabia; the Jews that dwell there call it Jordan. However, its breadth is extended from the river Jordan to Joppa. The city Jerusalem is situated in the very middle; on which account some have, with sagacity enough, called that city the Navel of the country. Nor indeed is Judea destitute of such delights as come from the sea, since its maritime places extend as far as Ptolemais: it was parted into eleven portions, of which the royal city Jerusalem was the supreme, and presided over all the neighboring country, as the head does over the body. As to the other cities that were inferior to it, they presided over their several toparchies; Gophna was the second of those cities, and next to that Acrabatta, after them Thamna, and Lydda, and Emmaus, and Pella, and Idumea, and Engaddi, and Herodium, and Jericho; and after them came Jamnia and Joppa, as presiding over the neighboring people; and besides these there was the region of Gamala, and Gaulonitis, and Batanea, and Trachonitis, which are also parts of the kingdom of Agrippa. This [last] country begins at Mount Libanus, and the fountains of Jordan, and reaches breadthways to the lake of Tiberias; and in length is extended from a village called Arpha, as far as Julias. Its inhabitants are a mixture of Jews and Syrians. And thus have I, with all possible brevity, described the country of Judea, and those that lie round about it.[10]GeographyMediterranean oak and terebinth woodland in the Valley of Elah, southwestern Judea.Judea is a mountainous region, part of which is considered a desert. It varies greatly in height, rising to an altitude of 1,020 m (3,346 ft) in the south at Mount Hebron, 30 km (19 mi) southwest of Jerusalem, and descending to as much as 400 m (1,312 ft) below sea level in the east of the region. It also varies in rainfall, starting with about 400–500 millimetres (16–20 in) in the western hills, rising to 600 millimetres (24 in) around western Jerusalem (in central Judea), falling back to 400 millimetres (16 in) in eastern Jerusalem and dropping to around 100 mm in the eastern parts, due to a rainshadow effect (this is the Judean desert). The climate, accordingly, moves between Mediterranean in the west and desert climate in the east, with a strip of steppe climate in the middle. Major urban areas in the region include Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Gush Etzion, Jericho and Hebron.[11]Geographers divide Judea into several regions: the Hebron hills, the Jerusalem saddle, the Bethel hills and the Judean desert east of Jerusalem, which descends in a series of steps to the Dead Sea. The hills are distinct for their anticline structure. In ancient times the hills were forested, and the Bible records agriculture and sheep farming being practiced in the area. Animals are still grazed today, with shepherds moving them between the low ground to the hilltops as summer approaches, while the slopes are still layered with centuries-old stone terracing. The Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended in the devastation of vast areas of the Judaean countryside.[12]HistoryEarly Iron AgeMain articles: History of ancient Israel and Judah and Kingdom of JudahMap of the southern Levant, c.830s BCE. Kingdom of JudahThe early history of Judah is uncertain; the Biblical account states that the Kingdom of Judah, along with the Northern Kingdom, was a successor to a united Kingdom of Israel, but modern scholarship generally holds that the united monarchy is ahistorical.[13][14][15][16] Regardless, the Northern Kingdom was conquered into the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 720 BCE. The Kingdom of Judah remained nominally independent, but paid tribute to the Assyrian Empire from 715 and throughout the first half of the 7th century BCE, regaining its independence as the Assyrian Empire declined after 640 BCE, but after 609 again fell under the sway of imperial rule, this time paying tribute at first to the Egyptians and after 601 BCE to the Neo-Babylonian Empire, until 586 BCE, when it was finally conquered by Babylonia.Judea is central to much of the narrative of the Torah, with the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob said to have been buried at Hebron in the Tomb of the Patriarchs.Persian and Hellenistic periodsHasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome AlexandraMain article: Yehud MedinataThe Babylonian Empire fell to the conquests of Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE.[17] Judea remained under Persian rule until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BCE, eventually falling under the rule of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire until the revolt of Judas Maccabeus resulted in the Hasmonean dynasty of Kings who ruled in Judea for over a century.[18]Roman conquestSee also: Judea (Roman province)Judea lost its independence to the Romans in the 1st century BCE, by becoming first a tributary kingdom, then a province, of the Roman Empire. The Romans had allied themselves to the Maccabees and interfered again in 63 BCE, at the end of the Third Mithridatic War, when the proconsul Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great") stayed behind to make the area secure for Rome, including his siege of Jerusalem in 63 BCE. Queen Alexandra Salome had recently died, and a civil war broke out between her sons, Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II. Pompeius restored Hyrcanus but political rule passed to the Herodian family who ruled as client kings. In 6 CE, Judea came under direct Roman rule as the southern part of the province of Iudaea, although Jews living in the province still maintained some form of independence and could judge offenders by their own laws, including capital offences, until circa 28 CE.[19] The Province of Judea, during the late Second Temple period was also divided into five conclaves, or administrative districts: 1) Jerusalem (ירושלם), 2) Gadara (גדרה), 3) Amathus (עמתו), 4) Jericho (יריחו), 5) Sepphoris (צפורין).[20] Eventually, the Jewish population rose against Roman rule in 66 CE in a revolt that was unsuccessful. Jerusalem was besieged in 70 CE and much of the population was killed or enslaved.[21]Bar Kokhba revoltMain article: Bar Kokhba revoltAgain 70 years later, the Jewish population revolted under the leadership of Simon bar Kokhba and established the last Kingdom of Israel, which lasted three years, before the Romans managed to conquer the province for good, at a high cost in terms of manpower and expense.After the defeat of Bar Kokhba (132–135 CE) the Roman Emperor Hadrian was determined to wipe out the identity of Israel-Judah-Judea, and renamed it Syria Palaestina. Until that time the area had been called "province of Judea" (Roman Judea) by the Romans.[22] At the same time, he changed the name of the city of Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina. The Romans killed many Jews and sold many more into slavery; many Jews departed into the Jewish diaspora, but there was never a complete Jewish abandonment of the area, and Jews have been an important (and sometimes persecuted) minority in Judea since that time.[23]Byzantine period5th-century CE: Byzantine provinces of Palaestina I (Philistia, Judea and Samaria) and Palaestina II (Galilee and Perea)The Byzantines redrew the borders of the Land of Palestine. The various Roman provinces (Syria Palaestina, Samaria, Galilee, and Peraea) were reorganized into three diocese of Palaestina, reverting to the name first used by Greek historian Herodotus in the mid-5th century BCE: Palaestina Prima, Secunda, and Tertia or Salutaris (First, Second, and Third Palestine), part of the Diocese of the East.[24][25] Palaestina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the Paralia, and Peraea with the governor residing in Caesarea. Palaestina Secunda consisted of the Galilee, the lower Jezreel Valley, the regions east of Galilee, and the western part of the former Decapolis with the seat of government at Scythopolis. Palaestina Tertia included the Negev, southern Jordan—once part of Arabia—and most of Sinai with Petra as the usual residence of the governor. Palestina Tertia was also known as Palaestina Salutaris.[24][26] According to historian H.H. Ben-Sasson,[27] this reorganisation took place under Diocletian (284–305), although other scholars suggest this change occurred later in 390.[citation needed]Timeline11th century BCE–930 BCE — part of the Kingdom of Israel930 BCE–586 BCE — Kingdom of Judah586 BCE–539 BCE — Babylonian Empire539 BCE–332 BCE — Persian Empire332 BCE–305 BCE — Macedonian Empire of Alexander the Great305 BCE–198 BCE — Ptolemaics198 BCE–141 BCE — Seleucids141 BCE–37 BCE — The Hasmonean state in Israel established by the Maccabees, after 63 BCE under Roman supremacy63 BCE – Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem37 BCE–132 CE — Herodian Dynasty ruling Judea as client kings under Roman supremacy (37 BCE–6 CE, 41–44 CE, 48–100 CE, Herod the Great, Agrippa I, Agrippa II respectively), interchanging with direct Roman rule (6–41, 44–132)c. 25 BCE - Caesarea Maritima is built by Herod the Great6 CE – Census of Quirinius, too late to correspond to census related to Jesus' birth26–36 – Pontius Pilate prefect of Roman Judea during the Crucifixion of Jesus66–73 – First Jewish–Roman War, includes Destruction of the Second Temple in 70115–117 — Kitos War132–135 — Bar Kokhba's revolt135 — Emperor Hadrian reverts to the name Syria Palaestina first used by HerodotusSee alsoHistory of PalestineIoudaiosJudea and Samaria AreaReferencesJump up ^ "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «jū-dē´a»Jump up ^ "Judah, Kingdom of". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2014-04-10.Jump up ^ A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict – Mark A. Tessler – Google Books. Retrieved 2012-12-31.Jump up ^ up ^ Neil Caplan (19 September 2011). The Israel-Palestine Conflict: Contested Histories. John Wiley & Sons. p. 8. ISBN 978-1405175395.Jump up ^ Studies in Palestinian Geography, Prof. S.J. Riggs, Auburn Theological Seminary, 1894, JSTOR The Biblical WorldJump up ^ "A few of the careful, however, having obtained private records of their own, either by remembering the names or by getting them in some other way from the registers, pride themselves on preserving the memory of their noble extraction. Among these are those already mentioned, called Desposyni, on account of their connection with the family of the Saviour. Coming from Nazara and Cochaba, villages of Judea, into other parts of the world, they drew the aforesaid genealogy from memory and from the book of daily records as faithfully as possible." (Eusebius Pamphili, Church History, Book I, Chapter VII,§ 14)Jump up ^ "This Side of the River Jordan; On Language," Philologos, September 22, 2010, Forward.Jump up ^ "Judaea". Britannica. Retrieved 2012-12-31.Jump up ^ "Ancient History Sourcebook: Josephus (37 – after 93 CE): Galilee, Samaria, and Judea in the First Century CE". Retrieved 2012-12-31.Jump up ^ "Picturesque Palestine I: Jerusalem, Judah, Ephraim". Retrieved 2012-12-31.Jump up ^ "Unlikely A Tale of Two Conquests: The Unlikely Numismatic Association Between the Fall of New France (AD 1760) and the Fall of Judaea (AD 70)". Retrieved 2012-12-31.Jump up ^ Kuhrt, Amiele (1995). The Ancient Near East. Routledge. p. 438. ISBN 978-0415167628.Jump up ^ Finkelstein, Israel, and Silberman, Neil Asher, The Bible Unearthed : Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, Simon & Schuster, 2002. ISBN 0-684-86912-8Jump up ^ up ^ Thompson, Thomas L., 1999, The Bible in History: How Writers Create a Past, Jonathan Cape, London, ISBN 978-0-224-03977-2 p. 207Jump up ^ "The Persians". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2009-06-09.Jump up ^ "The Hasmonean Dynasty". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2009-06-09.Jump up ^ Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah 8b; ibid., Sanhedrin 41aJump up ^ Josephus, Antiquities Book 14, chapter 5, verse 4Jump up ^ "Roman Rule". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2009-06-09.Jump up ^ "The Name "Palestine"". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2010-08-16.Jump up ^ "Shimon Bar-Kokhba". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2009-06-09.^ Jump up to: a b Shahin (2005), p. 8Jump up ^ Thomas A. Idniopulos (1998). "Weathered by Miracles: A History of Palestine From Bonaparte and Muhammad Ali to Ben-Gurion and the Mufti". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-11.Jump up ^ "Roman Arabia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-08-11.Jump up ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, p. 351External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to Judea.Judea and civil warThe subjugation of JudeaJudaea 6–66 CEJudea photosThe Jewish History Resource Center Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

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