Roman Provincias > Mauretania Caesariensis

Mauretania Caesariensis

Roman History - Pax Romana Decoration

Background

Mauretania or Mauritania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarian" or "Cherchelli Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb, with its capital at Caesarea (modern Cherchell). The name of the capital was used to distinguish it from neighboring Mauretania Tingitana, which was ruled from Tangiers.Contents [hide]1Historical background2Religion3Episcopal sees4Economy5See also6References6.1SourcesHistorical background[edit]The Roman Empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117–138), showing the imperial province of Mauretania Caesariensis (modern Algeria in the Maghreb)In the 1st century AD, Roman emperor Claudius divided the westernmost Roman province in Africa, named Mauretania (land of the Mauri people, hence the word Moors), into Mauretania Caesariensis (named after its capital, one of many cities simply named Caesarea after the imperial cognomen that had become a title) and Mauretania Tingitana.Under Diocletian's Tetrarchy reform, the easternmost part was broken off from Mauretania Caesariensis as a separate small province, Mauretania Sitifensis, called after its inland capital Sitifis (actual Sétif) with a significant port at Saldae (presently Béjaïa).Mauretania Caesariensis contained eight colonies founded by Augustus, Cartennas, Gunugu, Igilgili, Rusguniae, Rusazu, Saldae, Zuccabar, Tubusuctu; two by Claudius, Caesarea formerly "Iol" the capital of Juba, who gave it this name in honour of his patron Augustus, and Oppidum Novum; one by Nerva, Setifis; and in later times, Arsenaria, Bida, Siga, Aquae Calidae, Quiza Xenitana, Rusucurru, Auzia, Gilva, Icosium, and Tipasa in all 21 well-known colonies, besides several “municipia” and “oppida Latina.”At the time of Diocletian and Constantine the Great, both Sitifensis and Caesariensis were assigned to the administrative Diocese of Africa, in the praetorian prefecture of Italy, while Tingitana was an outpost of the Diocese of Spain. Caesarea was a major center of Judaism before 330, and Sitifis was one of the centres of the soldier cult of Mithraic mysteries. Christianity spread throughout in the 4th and 5th centuries.Religion[edit]Among the ruling class, Trinitarian Christianity was replaced by Arianism under the Germanic kingdom of the Vandals, which was established in 430, when the Vandals crossed the Strait of Gibraltar. The Vandal kingdom was extinguished by Byzantine armies around 533, but most of Mauretania Caesariensis remained under the control of local Moorish rulers such as Mastigas, and it was not until the 560s and 570s that Byzantine control was established in the interior. The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb meant the end of the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa and Late Antique Roman culture there; most of former Mauretania Caesariensis became part of the westernmost Islamic province, henceforth called the Maghreb.Episcopal sees[edit]Ancient episcopal sees of Mauretania Caesariensis listed in the Annuario Pontificio as titular sees:[1]Ala Miliaria (Beniane)AlbulaeAltava (Ouled Mimoun, Hadjar-Er-Roum)Amaura (Amourah)Ambia (near Hammam-Bou-Hanifia)Aquae in Mauretania (Hammam Righa District)Aquae Sirenses (ruins at Hammam-Bou-Hanifia)Arena (Bou-Saada?)Arsennaria (Bou-Râs?)Auzia (Aumale, Sour-Khazlam)BacanariaBaliana (L'Hillil?)Bapara (near the promontory of Ksila?)BenepotaBida (ruins of Djemâa-Sahridj?)Caesarea in Mauretania (now Cherchell), the Metropolitan ArchbishopricCaltadriaCapraCaput Cilla (ruins of El-Gouéa?)CartennaeCastellum Ripae (ruins of Hadjar-Ouaghef?)Castellum TatroportusCastellum Tingitii (Al Asnam)Castellum IabarCastellum MedianumCastellum Minus (Coléa, near Algiers)Castra Nova (Mohammadia)Castra Severiana (Lalla Marnia? Chanzy, Sidi-Ali-Ben-Joub?)Catabum Castra (Saint-Aimé, Djidioua?)CatrumCatula (Oued Damous?)Cenae (Kenais Islands)Cissi (Djinet)Columnata (Khemisti)CorniculanaElephantaria in Mauretania (ruins at (El) Harrach)Fallaba (Djelfa?)FidolomaFlenucletaFloriana (Letourneux, Derrag?)Flumenzer (Bou Medfa)FrontaGiru Mons (ruins of Yerroum?)GratianopolisGunugus (Sidi-Brahim)Gypsaria (Honeïn)Ida in MauretaniaIgilgilli (in the valley of Bou-Sellam?)Iomnium (port at Tzigiri)ItaIunca in MauretaniaLamdia (Médéa)Lari Castellum (Imilaën)MaiucaMalliana (Khemis Miliana)Manaccenser (in the region of Cherchell)MasuccabaMaturbaMaura (Douelt-Zerga?)MaurianaMaxita (in the region of Al-Asnam?)MediaMina (ruins near Rezilane)Muteci (near Aïn-El-Anab?)NabalaNasbincaNobaNovica (ruins of Aïn-Nouïssy?)Numida (in the territory of Amoura)ObbiObori (Sidi Fredj)Oppidum Novum (Aïn Defla)PanatoriaPomaria (Tlemcen)Rapidum (Masqueray, Sour-Djouab)Regiae (Arbal)ReperiRusada (Azeffoun)Rusguniae (Tamentfoust)Rusubbicari (Mers El Hadjadj)Rusubisir (in the territory of Tiza)RusuccuruSatafiSereddeliSertaSestaSfasferiaSiccesi (ruins of Takembrit)Sinnada in Mauretania (ruins of Kenada?)Sita (in the west of the provinceSubbarSufarSufasar (Amourah)SummulaTabaicaraTabla (Tablat?, Tablast?)Taborenta (ruins near Saida?)TabuniaTamada (Aïn-Tamda near Masqueray?)Tamazuca (ruins of Grimidi?)Tanaramusa (Mousaïaville, El-Hadjeab? Berrouaghia?)Tasaccora (Sigi)Tatilti (Souk El Khemis)TigamibenaTigavaTigisi in Mauretania (between Dellys and Taourga)Timici (Timsionin?)TimidanaTingaria (Tiaret?)Tipasa in MauretaniaTubia (ruins of Henchir-Toubia?)Tubunae in MauretaniaTurris in MauretaniaTuscamiaUbabaUsinaza (Seneg)Vagal (near the ruins of Sidi-Ben-Thiour)Vanariona (ruins of Ksar-Tyr?)VannidaVardimissa (near Medjana)Villa NovaVissalsa (on the Oued-Melah river?)Voncaria (ruins of Boghar?)Voncariana (near the ruins of Boghasi?)Vulturia (ruins at the Falco promontory?)ZucchabarEconomy[edit]Northern Africa under Roman rule.The principal exports from Caesariensis were purple dyes and valuable woods; and the Amazigh or Mauri were highly regarded by the Romans as soldiers, especially light cavalry. They produced one of Trajan's best generals, Lusius Quietus, and the emperor Macrinus.See also[edit]Notitia DignitatumPauly-WissowaReferences[edit]Jump up ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013Sources[edit]Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgschichte (in German)

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