Roman Provincias > Pannonia


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(Redirected from Pannonia (Roman province))This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)This article is about the Roman province. For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation).Provincia PannoniaProvince of the Roman Empire20 AD–107 AD → →Location of PannoniaProvince of Pannonia highlightedCapitalCarnuntum,[1] Sirmium,[2] Savaria,[3] Aquincum,[4] Poetovio[5] or Vindobona[6]History • Established20 AD • Division of PannoniaBetween the years 102 and 107, Trajan divided Pannonia into Pannonia Superior (western part with the capital Carnuntum), and Pannonia Inferior (eastern part with the capitals in Aquincum and Sirmium) 107 ADToday part of Hungary Slovakia Austria Serbia Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina SloveniaPannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located over the territory of the present-day western Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Croatia, north-western Serbia, northern Slovenia, western Slovakia and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.Contents [hide]1Name2History2.1Prior to Roman conquest2.2Under Roman rule2.3Aftermath3Cities and auxiliary forts4Economy and country features5Legacy6See also7References8Sources9External linksName[edit]Further information: PannoniiJulius Pokorny derived the name Pannonia from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, water, wet" (cf. English fen, "marsh"; Hindi pani, "water").[7]History[edit][show]This article is part of the histories of several countries:Prior to Roman conquest[edit]Further information: Prehistoric Hungary, Prehistoric Croatia, Prehistoric Serbia, Prehistoric Slovenia, Prehistoric Bosnia and Herzegovina, Prehistoric Austria, and Prehistoric SlovakiaThe first inhabitants of this area known to history were the Pannonii (Pannonians), a group of Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians. From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celtic tribes. Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia (Sisak). The country was not, however, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the Danube.Under Roman rule[edit]The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD), showing, on the middle Danube river, the imperial provinces of Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior and the 2 legions deployed in each in 125Map showing Constantine I's conquests of areas of present-day eastern Hungary, western Romania and northern Serbia, in the first decades of the 4th century (pink color).In AD 6, the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt, and were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign, which lasted for three years. After the rebellion was crushed in AD 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. The date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD 20 but before AD 50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes (Quadi, Marcomanni) necessitated the presence of a large number of troops (seven legions in later times), and numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube.Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior (western part with the capital Carnuntum), and Pannonia Inferior (eastern part with the capitals in Aquincum and Sirmium[8]). According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south; later, the boundary was placed further east. The whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias (Pannoniae).Pannonia Superior was under the consular legate, who had formerly administered the single province, and had three legions under his control. Pannonia Inferior was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison; after Marcus Aurelius, it was under a consular legate, but still with only one legion. The frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian.Under Diocletian, a fourfold division of the country was made:Pannonia Prima in the northwest, with its capital in Savaria / Sabaria,Pannonia Valeria in the northeast, with its capital in Sopianae,Pannonia Savia in the southwest, with its capital in Siscia,Pannonia Secunda in the southeast, with its capital in SirmiumDiocletian also moved parts of today's Slovenia out of Pannonia and incorporated them in Noricum. In 324 AD, Constantine I enlarged the borders of Roman Pannonia to the east, annexing the plains of what is now eastern Hungary, northern Serbia and western Romania up to the limes that he created: the Devil's Dykes.In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of Dalmatia, Noricum Mediterraneum and Noricum Ripense.Pannonia in the 1st centuryPannonia in the 2nd centuryPannonia in the 4th centuryPannonia with Constantine I "limes" in 330 ADAftermath[edit]Gerulata- a Roman military camp located near today's Rusovce, Slovakia.Following the Migrations Period in the middle of the 5th century, Pannonia was ceded to the Huns by Theodosius II. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Marcian in the province as foederati. The Eastern Roman Empire controlled it for a time in the 6th century, and a Byzantine province of Pannonia with its capital at Sirmium was temporarily restored, but it included only a small south-eastern part of historical Pannonia.Afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, the Slavs, who first settled c. 480s but became independent only since the 7th century, the Franks, who named a frontier march the March of Pannonia in the end of the 8th century, and the term Pannonia was also used for a Slavic duchy that was vassal to the Franks.Furthermore, between the 5th and the 10th century, the romanized population of Pannonia developed the Romance Pannonian Language, mainly around the lake Balaton in present-day western Hungary, where there was the keszthely culture. This language and the related culture became extinct with the arrival of the Magyars.Cities and auxiliary forts[edit]Aerial photography: Gorsium - Tác - HungaryAquincum, HungaryRuins of Imperial Palace in SirmiumThe native settlements consisted of pagi (cantons) containing a number of vici (villages), the majority of the large towns being of Roman origin. The cities and towns in Pannonia were:Now in Austria:Carnuntum (Petronell, Bad Deutsch-Altenburg)Vindobona (Vienna)Now in Bosnia and Hercegovina:Saldae (Brčko)Serbinum or Servitium (Gradiška)Now in Croatia:Ad Novas (Zmajevac)Andautonia (Ščitarjevo)Aqua Viva (Petrijanec)Aquae Balisae (Daruvar)Certissa (Đakovo)Cibalae (Vinkovci)Cornacum (Sotin)Cuccium (Ilok)Iovia or Iovia Botivo (Ludbreg)Marsonia (Slavonski Brod)Mursa (Osijek)Siscia (Sisak)Teutoburgium (Dalj)Now in Hungary:Ad Flexum (Mosonmagyaróvár)Ad Mures (Ács)Ad Statuas (Vaspuszta)Ad Statuas (Várdomb)Alisca (Szekszárd)Alta Ripa (Tolna)Aquincum (Óbuda, Budapest)Arrabona (Győr)Brigetio (Szőny)Caesariana (Baláca)Campona (Nagytétény)Cirpi (Dunabogdány)Contra-Aquincum (Budapest)Contra Constantiam (Dunakeszi)Gorsium-Herculia (Tác)Intercisa (Dunaújváros)Iovia (Szakcs)Lugio (Dunaszekcső)Lussonium (Dunakömlőd)Matrica (Százhalombatta)Morgentianae (Tüskevár (?))Mursella (Mórichida)Quadrata (Lébény)Sala (Zalalövő)Savaria or Sabaria (Szombathely)Scarbantia (Sopron)Solva (Esztergom)Sopianae (Pécs)Ulcisia Castra (Szentendre)Valcum (Fenékpuszta)Now in Serbia:Acumincum (Stari Slankamen)Ad Herculae (Čortanovci)Bassianae (Donji Petrovci)Bononia (Banoštor)Burgenae (Novi Banovci)Cusum (Petrovaradin)Graio (Sremska Rača)Onagrinum (Begeč)Rittium (Surduk)Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica)Taurunum (Zemun)Now in Slovakia:Gerulata (Rusovce)Now in Slovenia:Celeia (Celje)Neviodunum (Drnovo)Poetovio (Ptuj)Economy and country features[edit]Ancient peoples in PannoniaThe country was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared by Probus and Galerius. Before that time, timber had been one of its most important exports. Its chief agricultural products were oats and barley, from which the inhabitants brewed a kind of beer named sabaea. Vines and olive trees were little cultivated. Pannonia was also famous for its breed of hunting dogs. Although no mention is made of its mineral wealth by the ancients, it is probable that it contained iron and silver mines. Its chief rivers were the Dravus, Savus, and Arrabo, in addition to the Danuvius (less correctly, Danubius), into which the first three rivers flow.Legacy[edit]The ancient name Pannonia is retained in the modern term Pannonian plain.See also[edit]Pannonian plainRoman EmpireRoman provincesDiocese of PannoniaReferences[edit]Jump up ^ Vienna, Anthony Haywood, Caroline (CON) Sieg, Lonely Planet Vienna, 2010, page 21.Jump up ^ The third book of history: containing ancient history in connection with ancient geography, Samuel Griswold Goodrich, Jenks, Palmer, 1835, page 111.Jump up ^ The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia, Alfonz Lengyel, George T. Radan, University Press of Kentucky, 1980, page 247.Jump up ^ People and nature in historical perspective, Péter Szabó, Central European University Press, 2003, page 144.Jump up ^ Historical outlook: a journal for readers, students and teachers of history, Том 9, American Historical Association, National Board for Historical Service, National Council for the Social Studies, McKinley Publishing Company, 1918, page 194.Jump up ^ THE COTTAGE CYCLOPEDIA OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY, ED.M.PIERCE, 1869, page 915.Jump up ^ J. Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, No. 1481Jump up ^ The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation, Taylor & Francis, page 381.Sources[edit]Radomir Popović, Rano hrišćanstvo u Panoniji, Vojvođanski godišnjak, sveska I, Novi Sad, 1995.Petar Milošević, Arheologija i istorija Sirmijuma, Novi Sad, 2001.External links[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pannonia.PannoniaPannoniaPannoniaPannonia mapPannonia mapAerial photography: Gorsium - Tác - HungaryAerial photography: Aquincum - Budapest - HungaryAuthority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 133472541 GND: 4044473-9Coordinates: 44.9000°N 19.0200°E

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