Roman Legions > Legio XIII Gemina

Legio XIII Gemina

Legio XIII GeminaRoman Empire 125.pngMap of the Roman empire in AD 125, under emperor Hadrian, showing the LEGIO XIII GEMINA, stationed at Apulum (now Alba Iulia, Romania), in the province of Dacia, from AD 106 to c. 271Active57 BC to sometime in the 5th centuryCountryRoman Republic and Roman EmpireTypeRoman legion (Marian)RoleInfantry assault (some cavalry support)SizeVaried over unit lifetime. Approx. 3,500 fighting men + support at the time of creation. Expanded and given the cognomen Gemina in 31 BC.Garrison/HQBurnum, Illyricum (1st century BC)Emona, Pannonia (1st century)Augusta Vindelica, Germania SuperiorPoetovio, Pannonia (1st century)Roman Dacia (106 – c. 270)Dacia Aureliana (since 270)Babylon in Egypt (400s)Nickname(s)Gemina, "The twin" (since 31 BC)Pia Fidelis, "Faithful and loyal"[1]Mascot(s)LionEngagementsGallic Wars (58–51 BC)Battle against the Nervians (57 BC)Battle of Gergovia (52 BC)Battle of Alesia (52 BC)–uncertainBattle of Dyrrhachium (48 BC)Battle of Pharsalus (48 BC)Battle of Thapsus (46 BC)Battle of Munda (45 BC)Battle of Actium (31 BC)1st and 2nd Battle of Bedriacum (69)Dacian Wars (101–102,105–106)Vexillationes of the 13th participated in many other campaigns.CommandersNotablecommandersJulius Caesar,Marcus Salvius Otho,Marcus Antonius PrimusSestertius minted in 248 by Philip the Arab to celebrate the province of Dacia and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina. Note the eagle and lion, symbols on the reverse, respectively of legio V and legio XIII.Legio tertia decima Geminia, in English the 13th Twin Legion, also known as Legio tertia decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was one of Julius Caesar's key units in Gaul and in the civil war, and was the legion with which he famously crossed the Rubicon on January 10, 49 BC. The legion appears to have still been in existence in the 5th century AD. Its symbol was the lion.Contents [hide]1History1.1Under the late Republic1.2Under the Empire2Attested members3Epigraphic inscriptions4Fictional accounts5See also6Notes7References7.1Primary sources7.2Secondary sources8External linksHistory[edit]Under the late Republic[edit]Legio XIII was levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC, before marching against the Belgae, in one of his early interventions in intra-Gallic conflicts. During the Gallic Wars (58–51 BC), Legio XIII was present at the Battle against the Nervians, the Siege of Gergovia, and while not specifically mentioned in the sources, it is reasonable to assume that Legio XIII was also present for the Battle of Alesia.After the end of the Gallic wars, the Roman Senate refused Caesar his second consulship, ordered him to give up his commands, and demanded he return to Rome to face prosecution. Forced to choose either the end of his political career or civil war, Caesar brought Legio XIII across the Rubicon river and into Italy. The legion remained faithful to Caesar during the resulting civil war between Caesar and the conservative Optimates faction of the senate, whose legions were commanded by Pompey. Legio XIII was active throughout the entire war, fighting at Dyrrhachium (48 BC) and Pharsalus (48 BC). After the decisive victory over Pompey at Pharsalus, the legion was to be disbanded, and the legionaries "pensioned off" with the traditional land grants; however, the legion was recalled for the Battle of Thapsus (46 BC) and the final Battle of Munda (45 BC). After Munda, Caesar disbanded the legion, retired his veterans, and gave them farmland in Italy.Under the Empire[edit]Augustus reconstituted the legion once again in 41 BC to deal with the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius (son of Pompey) in Sicily.Legio XIII acquired the cognomen Gemina ("twin", a common appellation for legions constituted from portions of others) after being reinforced with veteran legionaries from other legions following the war against Mark Antony and the Battle of Actium.[2] Augustus then sent the legion to Burnum (modern Knin), in Illyricum, a Roman province in the Adriatic Sea.In 16 BC, the legion was transferred to Emona (now Ljubljana) in Pannonia, where it dealt with local rebellions.After the disaster of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9, the legion was sent as reinforcements to Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg), and then to Vindonissa, Raetia, to prevent further attacks from the Germanic tribes.Emperor Claudius sent them back to Pannonia around 45 and the legion built its legionary fortress at Poetovium (modern Ptuj, Slovenia).In the year of the four emperors (69), XIII Gemina supported first Otho and then Vespasian against Vitellius, fighting in the two Battles of Bedriacum.Stamped brick found at Alba Iulia, RomaniaUnder Trajan the legion took part in both Dacian wars (101–102, 105–106), and it was transferred by Trajan in 106 to the newly conquered province of Dacia (in Apulum, modern Alba Iulia, Romania) to garrison it.Vexillationes of the XIII Gemina fought under Emperor Gallienus in northern Italy. The emperor issued a legionary antoninianus celebrating the legion, and showing the legion's lion (259–260).[3] Another vexillatio was present in the army of the emperor of the Gallic Empire Victorinus: this emperor, in fact, issued a gold coin celebrating the legion and its emblem.[4]In 271, the legion was relocated when the Dacia province was evacuated, and restationed in Dacia Aureliana.In the 5th century, according to the Notitia Dignitatum, a legio tertiadecima gemina was in Babylon in Egypt, a strategic fortress on the Nile at the traditional border between Lower Egypt and Middle Egypt, under the command of the Comes limitis Aegypti.[5]Attested members[edit]NameRankTime frameProvinceSoldier located inVeteran located inSourceAurelius Rufinus [6]beneficiarius2nd – 3rd century ADDaciaSamum-C. Cassio C. f. Volt[inia] [7]tribunus legionis ? ? ?- ?C. Iulius Valerius [8] ?222 – 235 ADDacia ? ?Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana, DaciaCIL III, 1933Caius [9]speculator2nd – 3rd century ADDaciaApulum-CIL III, 14479; IDR III/5, 426Cocceius [9]speculator2nd – 3rd century ADDaciaApulum-CIL III, 14479; IDR III/5, 426L. Dasumius Priscus [8] ?2nd century AD ? ?Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana, DaciaCIL III, 1476L. Valerius Rufus [8]decurioafter 222 AD ? ?Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana, DaciaCIL III, 1485Lucius Furius?1st century ADGallia AquitaniaMediolanum SantonumAunedonnacumStèle funéraire Lucius Furius 03196.JPGLucius Autius?1st century ADGallia AquitaniaMediolanum SantonumAunedonnacumStèle funéraire Lucius Autius 03193.JPGM. Valerius Valentinus [6]beneficiarius2nd – 3rd century ADDaciaSamum-CIL III, 827Marcus Aurelius Timoni [10] ?2nd - 3rd century ADDacia ?Castra of Sânnicolau Mare ?Castra of Sânnicolau Mare, DaciaIDR III/1, 274M[arcus] Ulp[ius] ?2nd – 3rd century ADDacia ?ApulumIDR III/5, 180P. Aelius Valerianus [9]speculator2nd - 3rd century ADDaciaApulum-IDR III/5, 721Publius Urvinus ? ?RaetiaAugusta Vindelicorum ?-CIL XIII, 6884Q. Iulius Secundinus [8] ?2nd century ADDacia ? ?Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana, DaciaCIL III, 1971Statius Alexander [9]speculator2nd – 3rd century ADDaciaApulum-Apulum 40, 2007, 176–177Ulpius Proculinus [9]speculatorGordian's reignDaciaApulum-CIL III, 7794b; IDR III/5, 435Ulpius Bacchius [9]centurion ? ? ? ? ?Valerius Vibius Valerianus [6]beneficiarius2nd – 3rd century ADDaciaSamum-CIL III, 823Epigraphic inscriptions[edit]- Marco Cornelio Marci filio Galeria (tribu) Nigrino / Curiatio Materno consuli - / - tribuno militum legionis XIIII Geminae (...). Liria, Spain. CIL II2/14.- Caio Iulio Galeria (tribu) Lepido Iessonensi primi pilari centurioni legionis XIII Geminae Piae Fidelis centurioni (...). Lerida (Ilerda), Spain. CIL II 4463.Fictional accounts[edit]A fictionalized account of the actions of Legio XIII Gemina during the struggle between Julius Caesar and the Optimates faction under Pompey can be seen in the joint HBO/BBC/RAI television production Rome, most notably two of its soldiers: Centurion Lucius Vorenus and Legionary Titus Pullo, named after real-life Centurions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo of the Legio XI Claudia.See also[edit]Roman legionList of Roman legionsDacia RipensisNotes[edit]Jump up ^ Steiner, Johann Wilhelm C. (1851). Codex inscriptionum romanarum Danubii et Rheni. p. 253.Jump up ^ Birley, E.B. "A Note on the Title 'Gemina'". Journal of Roman Studies. 18 (1): 56–60. doi:10.2307/296044.Jump up ^ Cowan, p. 17.Jump up ^ Cowan, p. 26.Jump up ^ Notitia Dignitatum, In partibus Orientis, XXVIII^ Jump up to: a b c Cupcea, George (2010). "Professional Officers on the Northern Dacian limes". p. 12. Retrieved 2013-05-26.Jump up ^ Matei-Popescu, Florian (2008). "AUXILIARIA - A new equestrian officer from Philippi". Near and beyong the Roman frontier. Retrieved 2013-05-26.^ Jump up to: a b c d Cupcea, George (2011). "Veteran settlement and Colonia Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa". Scripta Classica. Mega Publishing House. p. 19. Retrieved 2013-05-26.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Cupcea, George (2008). "SPECULATORES IN DACIA. MISSIONS AND CAREERS". Acta Musei Napocensis. p. 18. Retrieved 2013-05-26.Jump up ^ IDR III/1, 274References[edit]Primary sources[edit]"Notitia Dignitatum". Retrieved 2006-11-22.Secondary sources[edit]Lendering, Jona. "Legio XIII Gemina". Retrieved 2006-11-18.Cowan, Ross; illustrated by Angus McBride (2003). Imperial Roman Legionary AD 161-284. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-601-1. Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)External links[edit] Media related to Legio XIII Gemina at Wikimedia CommonsLEGIO XIII GEMINA Blog (Roman reenactment group inside the virtual world of Second Life)LEG XIII GEM, Austrian re-enactment groupLegio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix (Roman Military Research Society)

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