Roman Structures > Aqueducts > Aqueducts of Lyon

Aqueducts of Lyon

The ancient aqueducts of Lyon fed the Gallo-Roman city of Lugdunum . Situated largely on the hill of Fourvière , it could reach an altitude of 300 meters (against 160 meters for the lower town on the banks of the Saône ). In addition, some sources gushed from the hill, and none above the threshold Trion. In order to have drinking water throughout the city, an appeal to the waters of nearby mountains ( Monts d'Or , Monts du Lyonnais , mountains of Pilat ) was necessary, via a system of aqueducts .A key feature of these aqueducts, compared with more conventional systems of aqueducts Nîmes or Rome , is the need for all the works to use the system drains to cross the valley of the Yzeron and Rochecardon stream which separate the Fourvière hill heights of the Monts du Lyonnais and the Monts d'Or where the water came from.Photography aqueduct covered brick arches across a field.Arches Dish Air at Chaponost, on the aqueduct of Gier.Summary1History of the study of the Lyons aqueducts1.1In the sixteenth century1.2Fortheeighteenth and nineteenth centuries1.3Forthetwentieth and twenty-first centuries2Different aqueducts Lugdunum2.1The aqueduct Monts d'Or2.2The aqueduct of Yzeron2.3The aqueduct Brévenne2.4The aqueduct of Gier2.5 Cordieux aqueducts and Miribel2.5.1Aqueduct Cordieu2.5.2Aqueduct Miribel3Techniques implemented3.1Types of pipes3.1.1Canal trench3.1.2Tunnel3.1.3Slopes3.1.4Falls3.1.5Dikes and causeways3.1.6Regards3.1.7Bridges3.1.8Traps3.1.8.1Need siphons3.1.8.2Morphology of siphons3.1.8.3The problem of pressure3.1.8.4Bridges-traps3.2Building Materials3.2.1Masonry3.2.2binder3.2.3Type of equipment3.2.3.1Regular3.2.3.2Irregular3.2.4Channel Coating3.2.5Lead4Protection of works5References5.1Notes5.2References6Bibliography7See also7.1Related articles7.2External LinksHistory of the study of the Lyons aqueducts [ edit | edit the code ]Eighteenth-century painting of the ruins of stone arches of wide aircraft, Outlining The Beginning of a ruined bridge.The remains of the Gier aqueduct in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon , in the 1780s.In the sixteenth century [ edit | edit the code ]Roman ruins, called "antiquities" are studied by noble as Pierre Sala , Symphorien Champier , or religious as Claude Bellievre . The aqueducts are then often called "Saracen" name of those who have partially destroyed. These initial research leads to particularly distinguish several different aqueducts "Chapponot" ( Chaponost on the aqueduct of Gier), "Escuylly" ( Ecully , on the aqueduct of Brévenne) .The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries [ edit | edit the code ]Guillaume Delorme (1700-1782) was the first to devote a scientific study to Lyons aqueducts, to possibly re-used for drinking water supply in Lyon . This is the same problem that pushes the architect Alexandre Flacheron in 1842 to publish a new study focusing on the aqueduct of Gier. None of these accomplishments would eventually born .The twentieth and twenty-first centuries [ edit | edit the code ]The twentieth century began with the publication of the comprehensive thesis Camille Germain Montauzan , which relies heavily on the work of its predecessors; but also on comparisons with similar structures located in Rome, in Tunisia, in Île-de-France, Frejus; on many calculations (speed, pressure drop, hydraulic pressure, etc.); as well as personal photographic observations. The quality of this book is such that little research is done on the subject until the 1960s .The additional archaeological finds in post-war rediscovery of manuscripts such as Delorme, the constitution of history and archeology associations and new investigative techniques then enable the enrichment of the study aqueducts Roman . Meanwhile, the Regional Archaeology Service of Rhône-Alpes integrates four books in its conservation policy .The various aqueducts Lugdunum [ edit | edit the code ]Four aqueducts supplied water to the city (the other two, presented at the end of this paragraph are discussed). They combined 220 kilometers of pipes . They are, from shortest to longest (and the oldest to newest ):The aqueduct Monts d'Or [ edit | edit the code ]Source sensed in a brick tunnel.Source of Arches valley, water intake of the water of the Golden Mountains .Main article: Aqueduct of the Golden Mountains .The aqueduct of the Monts d'Or, the first built (probably by Marcus Agrippa Vipsanius , around the year 20 BC ), is fed to the source of the stream Thou, on the northern slope Monts d'Or of the (now the town of Poleymieux-au-Mont-d'Or ) . It is 26 kilometers, of which 22 covered trench.His departure was quite low altitude (370 meters), and its slope allowed a Fourvière arrival at the altitude of 260 meters, just enough to pass the threshold of Trion. As for his speed, it varies according to the sources. Camille Germain Montauzan esteem between 8000 m 3 per day (93 L / s) and 15 000 m 3 a day (174 L / s) ; John Burdy, between 2000 m 3 per day (23 L / s) and 6000 m 3 per day (70 L / s) .The aqueduct of Yzeron [ edit | edit the code ]Two massive brick near a dozen meters high and completely Call covered in ivy.The trunnion of batteries, ancient remains of the intermediate tank double siphon of the aqueduct of Yzeron in Craponne .Main article: Aqueduct Yzeron .The aqueduct of Yzeron was the second in the order of construction, during the reign of Augustus , perhaps around the year 9 BC . It has a feature that distinguishes the three others: it is the only aqueduct branched Lugdunum. It has its main source in Yzeron , but others exist, including Pollionnay and Vaugneray . Different confluence pipelines Grézieu-la-Varenne and Craponne , hence the name "water Craponne" given to this work by Camille Germain Montauzan .Unlike aqueducts Gier and Mont-d'Or, the work of Yzeron had its source in a particularly high altitude 710 meters to 715 meters (600 meters but for Vaugneray branch). However, this was not necessarily an advantage, too steep slope may cause excessive water velocity and consequently rapid wear of the channel structure . Besides, repairs are visible in several places on this book: the bottom of the culvert is covered in places by more than five times silty gravel refills more or less compact, or evidence that the original substance has been altered by water and requires repair, or that the work of the maintenance team has found it necessary to redesign the slope to curb the current .So it was this aqueduct place of experimentation process breakers slope falls (see below ). 26 long 40 kilometers along the branches, he reached an estimated height of 268 meters, in the current area of Point du Jour . According to Camille Germain Montauzan, his speed was between 12,000 m 3 per day (129 L / s) and 15 000 m 3 a day (176 L / s) . Current studies are less insured and John Burdy gives no volume.Another remarkable feature of this work is double siphon to cross one hand slightly concave plate Craponne, and also the deep valley of Alai. The first siphon avoided the construction of a very long section (over a kilometer) on particularly high arches , the second to cross the Alai Valley. One trap was unthinkable, the intermediate level rise Thorns would have caused an accumulation of air in this place, which would have long broken the siphon , .Pattern in black and white, from Reconstructing Existing ruins (in black) Configuring a tank Placed at a great height (about fifteen meters) entre year upstream and downstream siphon a siphon.Montauzan Germain reconstitution of the trunnion of the tank, both leaking tank siphon Craponne Hunting tank siphon Alai. The parts in black correspond to elements still standing at the time (1908).The aqueduct Brévenne [ edit | edit the code ]Photography of ancient arches Supporting a driving steep (and THUS pressure).Rampant siphon Clubs of the aqueduct Brévenne to Tassin-la-Demi-Lune .Main article: Aqueduct Brévenne .The aqueduct Brévenne was built during the reign of Claude . The altitude of the source and location of it in the heart of the Monts du Lyonnais are quite close to those of the previous aqueduct. However, the route and the processes involved are radically different.The aqueduct Brévenne has the characteristic to benefit from a reinforcement doubling the pier, unlined and that appears from the foundation of the channel level .As the aqueduct of Yzeron, that of Brévenne had used several catchments (all located on the tributaries of the right bank of Brévenne , hence its name) to expand and secure its flow. But these catchments were all carried out without ramification, directly on the aqueduct route. As these catchments are located on the western side (opposite the Lyon side) of the Monts du Lyonnais, the aqueduct Brévenne develops a much greater length (66 km, 59 cut and cover) to that of the book of Yzeron. It starts from 630 meters to reach about 280 meters to Saint-Just , after a particularly long siphon section (3 500 meters). Camille Germain Montauzan believes his speed was the most important of the four works supplying Lyon (28 000 m 3 a day, 324 L / s) . However, John Burdy is more reserved and only grants 10,000 m 3 per day (115 L / s) in this work .The aqueduct of Gier [ edit | edit the code ]Long succession of arches carrying a pipe Located along a road.Remains of the Gier aqueduct in Chaponost .Main article: Aqueduct of Gier .The aqueduct of Gier is by far the longest, most ambitious and most technically complex of four books fueling Lyon. Last built, probably under Hadrian , around the year 119 , it is characterized by a greater use of siphons (four siphons, representing five kilometers in total length).The length of the canal is 86 kilometers, of which 73 covered trench. In this length, however, requires counting 11 km duplication that occurs when crossing the valley Durèze . The water intake is done in the Gier , above Saint-Chamond , at the altitude of about 410 meters. Arrival altitude is 300 meters (Cybele tank at the Sarra, the aqueduct of Gier is the only one to reach the top of the Fourvière), the slope was particularly low (0.5 to 1.2 ‰, against an average for dual other works ) and was a remarkable technical achievement. Arriving on the Fourvière, the channel initially fell across the highest part, which today corresponds to Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon and the district of Saint Irenaeus , crossed the threshold of Trion right angles to three other works by a siphon, and reached the top of Sarra, on the part of the hill dedicated to the forum.Camille Germain Montauzan believes his speed to 24 000 m 3 a day, 278 L / s) . John Burdy whatever minimizes rates suggested by its predecessor, says the speed of this aqueduct was the most abundant of all (15,000 m 3 per day, or 173 L / s) .Compared to other aqueducts, especially that of the Brévenne whose length is comparable, the aqueduct of Gier is also one whose channel structure was the strongest, either due to a more suitable material, either due to best construction techniques. Anyway, archaeological surveys conducted in the years 1980 and 1990 revealed intact sections much more and much longer on the trenches of the aqueduct of Gier as other sections in the trenches .The aqueducts of Cordieux and Miribel [ edit | edit the code ]Two other Roman aqueducts have left traces in the Lyon area; unlike the first four, they did not come from the west and not fed Fourvière, but the lower city ( Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls , Peninsula , Ainay ). These are aqueducts Cordieux and Miribel, the existence, characteristics and purpose are not fully recognized .Aqueduct Cordieu [ edit | edit the code ]The first would rise to Cordieux (in the town of Montluel ), on the plateau of Dombes . He would have fed the Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls, especially for naumachies .Aqueduct Miribel [ edit | edit the code ]Drawing a cut was a double semi-circular arch.Room culmination of binoculars galleries of the Roman aqueduct of Miribel.Main article: Sarrasinières .The second was driven lower in the valley. It is known locally as the Sarrasinières . Its existence is attested by the twin galleries Neyron , located well above the Rhone, which Guillaume Delorme said he found traces to the City Hall . Its usefulness is against uncertain: it is almost certain that the waters of the Rhone do not borrowed, it is not clear why a book of this size (two galleries 1.90 meters to 2.85 meters in width height under arch) was built to supply the peninsula, when we know that the works ending at Fourvière fed cheaply current district Ainay .Techniques implemented [ edit | edit the code ]Types of conduct [ edit | edit the code ]Channel trench [ edit | edit the code ]Drawing in black and white showing a section of An Almost Entirely buried section of the aqueduct.Section of a trench on the aqueduct of Gier (survey and drawing by C. Germain Montauzan).The trench channels represent the vast majority of the route of the aqueducts (for example, the trench portion represents 90% of the route of the aqueduct of Gier, and 94% of the route of the aqueduct Brévenne) .The trench was dug and his raft consisting of standing stones, twenty to thirty centimeters high. Above them, a mortar froze four or five small regular material thicknesses, mostly cut to summarily parallelepipeds; the top of this assembly was the lowest point of the canal itself, while a similar assembly of each side formed the uprights. The upper section of the gallery was mostly vaulted , with rubble relatively large size (15 to 25 centimeters). The masonry work completed, the trench was backfilled; in any case, the outer surface of the upper part of the gallery was never at a depth less than a meter to ensure the sustainability of the book .A trench measured on average two meters wide for three to four meters deep. We can calculate that the two aqueducts Gier and Brévenne represented 500,000 m 3 each earthworks excavation for the realization of these trenches, and all four aqueducts 1.2 million cubic meters. the amount of masonry necessary for the realization of the two largest aqueducts turn is about 300 000 m 3 (800 000 m 3 for the four items) .Tunnel [ edit | edit the code ]The tunnels corresponded to the underground crossing of a relief to be spared a long bypass path, which proved not only expensive but was losing altitude channel. They were not needed in the first aqueducts of Lyon, which descended straight close reliefs des Monts d'Or and Lyon. However, it is possible, but not proven, that the Roman builder there was recourse to the aqueduct Brévenne; for the aqueduct of Gier, whose route follows the southwest flank of the mountains of Lyonnais, eight tunnels are attested, three others are more doubtful. The tunnels have a combined length of 3400 meters, the longest measuring 825 meters; these structures allow to shorten the conduit of 6 km, which represents 3-8 meters of vertical gain .Slopes [ edit | edit the code ]A minimum rise was needed to ensure sufficient flow and avoid stagnation. The slope should not be too large (see paragraph below), in order not to erode the internal coating of the duct. To ensure a constant slope and as precise as possible, particularly for the aqueduct of Gier, whose starting point was low enough, the end point earlier and longer length than other books. The tool used was chorobate , kind of water level .However, the extreme regularity of the plot does not prevent occasional accidents that occur by imperfect connections, in which case a short section steeper was inserted . In other cases, the statement of the bottom of the culvert shows slight against-slopes, measuring up to ten meters in length . These accidents are due to installation defects for children, with connections between two teams working on different sections for more important .Falls [ change | modify the code ]Diagram showing two horizontal Almost aqueduct sections separated by a vertical drop into a well bottom Whose Is located lower than the downstream pipe.breeze lift fall on the aqueduct of Yzeron.The ideal average slope was located around 1.5 mm / m, that is to say 1.5 ‰. In addition, the speed of the water was likely to exceed 1 m / s and deteriorate its erosive action by the tunnel. Now we have seen that two aqueducts, those of Brévenne and especially Yzeron, started from a fairly high altitude. For the aqueduct Brévenne, the average slope was 5 ‰; to that of Yzeron, almost 11 ‰ , . It was therefore essential to the Romans to break the slope. The chosen solution was to build courts reaches horizontal or low slope, separated by falls practiced in wells. These falls were about 2.3 meters to 2.5 meters. Often, many falls, forming a true hydraulic staircase, succeeded as Chevinay , the Aqueduct of Brévenne, where the water falls from 87 meters just 300 meters away .Dykes and causeways [ edit | edit the code ]Drawing in black and white showing a section of a section Whose Entire upper hand Emerges.Driving half-buried in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, on the aqueduct of Gier.The canal was in some semi-buried or placed on a landfill site. Often, this structure was a transition section between a trench or tunnel and an aerial viaduct section.Regards [ edit | edit the code ]Tunnel as trench, but in the semi-emergent sections of eyes were needed to go and examine, maintain or repair the canal. These manholes were found in small numbers on the aqueduct of Monts-d'Or (1 found to date) and the Brévenne (9). On the aqueduct of Gier, however, 88 eyes had been identified in 2008, including 7 on aerial substructures, 52 of trench 29 of the tunnels, the depth of the latter ranging from 6 to 20 meters. In the case of tunnels, eyes were dug at the beginning of the work and served both in the recognition of terrain, removing rubble and tracking control. The looks found so far are separated by an average distance of 77 meters, this distance can be halved (38 meters in the case of a deep tunnel as Mornant ). Extrapolating this distance over the length of the aqueduct of Gier is calculated that there must be about 1000 eyes on this aqueduct .Bridges [ edit | edit the code ]Viaducts are the most visible and the most emblematic of Roman aqueducts, though only about 5% of the total length . They served either to cross a valley without the need for an expensive and complex siphons (Mornantet Valley, two Bozançon) or to keep a high altitude as long as possible before a siphon (Craponne Chaponost).In the first case, the canal bridge often came right out of a tunnel (as in Mornant) and crossed the valley at a point of frequently chosen for its narrow valley or (less need of arches) is for its low gradient ( high arches less necessary). The relief being less restrictive in the West Lyon in the Cévennes or the Esterel, no work of the magnitude of the Pont du Gard or works in the foothills of the Aqueduct from Mons to Frejus has been built. However, there are a large number of these works (fifty bridges listed on the aqueduct of Gier)In the second case, it was to maintain an almost constant height water just before a siphon, while the natural terrain was slightly downhill. Hence the high bit works, but of great horizontal reach, as Soucieu-en-Jarrest and especially Chaponost . Note that these works are based on foundations laid at a considerable depth of excavations at Chaponost up to 1.2 meters were unable to reach the base .Siphons [ edit | edit the code ]Diagram showing the arrival of a gently sloping water, Placed on the arches, the citadel and the departure steep siphon.cistern (upstream) of the siphon Beaunant: Yzeron crossing the valley by the aqueduct of Gier.The traps were the part of both the most original and the most technical of Lyons aqueducts. As mentioned in the introduction, the foothills of the mountains of Lyonnais are separated from the Fourvière hill in the deep valley to the north qu'empruntent Rochecardon stream, that goes to Vaise, and south the Yzeron , which flows into the Rhone Oullins .Need siphons [ edit | edit the code ]The first three aqueducts had to achieve at least the Trion threshold to 265 meters. Let's look at what would have been possible dimensions of canal bridges crossing the valley.The first, the Monts d'Or, was 3500 meters distance to cross from Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or to find this altitude, with a low point below 180 meters. The second, that of Yzeron, had to cross the low point of Alai: 3600 meters in length from Craponne, with a starting altitude of 290 meters, a low of 195 meters, and reached 273 meters. In the book of Brévenne, that were about the same numbers, with 3500 meters length and 90 meters in altitude about between the upstream high point and the low point , .Diagram showing the longitudinal profile (height DEPENDING on the distance to the point collection). The vertical scale is larger than the horizontal scale, putting in three wide crossings value valleys.Long section of the terminal section of the aqueduct of Gier, with the last three siphons (Soucieu, Beaunant and Trion).For the aqueduct of Gier, constraints were even more important. Not only the specifications of the aqueduct loads imposed that brings water to the top of the Fourvière hill, 300 meters above sea level, but the valley of the Yzeron, reached further downstream to Beaunant, she is lowest (176 meters). However, the length, given the steeper slopes of Chaponost and Sainte-Foy, there is only 2 660 meters , .In all cases, both in terms of the length and height of the structures, it was unthinkable to achieve these canal bridges disproportionate. The siphon was needed.Morphology siphons [ edit | edit the code ]A siphon consists upstream of a reservoir, placed high (often on batteries as the trunnions Craponne), named cistern. In this tank the resulting channel flowing at atmospheric pressure. The tank allows ennoyer completely avoid the siphon and it primed.The central part of the trap is under pressure, so completely flooded. The atmospheric pressure theoretically allows to trace water as high as the point from which it is party. In practice, the pressure loss due to friction prohibits such an arrangement, and the water comes out of the siphon at a lower altitude than that of which it is part.The siphon outlet reservoir is called leakage reservoir.The problem of pressure [ edit | edit the code ]Plan next to a tank, cut up departures of penstocks (nine in this case).Map Soucieu tank on the aqueduct of Gier; arrival (top) of the channel distribution in the penstock (bottom).Siphons have a arrow corresponding to the difference in level between the highest point upstream of the siphon and the lowest point. This arrow corresponds to the water column exerting a pressure on the walls of the siphon. For the highest of them, that of Beaunant (which allows the Gier aqueduct to cross the Yzeron), this arrow was 113 meters high, which corresponds to a pressure of 12 bars (120 t / m 2, pressure that would have more than enough to break the line . Moreover, it was lead , easier to machine than the iron material, but more fragile and, given its rarity and cost, pipelines are measured, according to Camille Germain Montauzan, only 6.3 millimeters thick (according Burdy, this thickness shall be increased to 2.5 centimeters ). to solve this problem, the Romans divided the main line in small pipes of much smaller diameter (about 23 centimeters in outside diameter). depending on the speed, there were four (siphon Alai on the aqueduct of Yzeron) to eleven (Beaunant drain on the aqueduct of Gier) and maybe fourteen (siphon of Ecully on the aqueduct of Brévenne) pipes, which were always juxtaposed horizontally, which explains that the works constituting the drains were very broad.Bridges-siphons [ edit | edit the code ]black and white drawing showing, from the ruins found, the reconstruction of a bridge-siphon, with two levels of arches (the next level much Higher).Reconstruction of the bridge-siphon boardwalk in Ecully, on the aqueduct of Brévenne.To reduce the arrow on the valley floor, bridges were still made. Generally quite high (up to 33 meters for the bridge-siphon of Alai), were characterized primarily by a large width: up to four times wider than a canal bridge (eg 7.35 meters le pont-siphon de Beaunant), à cause de l'alignement horizontal des tuyaux de plomb.Above all, they were much more resistant, because of the very significant pressures they were under 41 . And perpendicular arches at the path of the water, initially carried on the arches of Beaunant saving materials, they had to be urgently filled in because the building from ruin each arch supporting a weight of approximately 500 tonnes 41 .The top of these bridges siphons was not completely flat: it showed a fairly significant upward slope (about 1%, which, on a siphon bridge such as Beaunant, was still two and a half meters of difference the beginning and end of the book). This slope has several advantages: first, to encourage any air bubbles that evacuation would be introduced into the pipe, following logically the flow of water; on the other hand, allow a drain in case of pipes of maintenance required. Vitruve suggests the existence of such a drainage device 42 .Construction Materials [ edit | edit the code ]Aqueducts, whether underground or elevated, were made of masonry . This masonry was paired in various ways, and bound by a mortar .Masonry [ edit | edit the code ]Structural materials forming both the substructures of the channel or its coverage amounts were bricks or stones. For the aqueduct Mont-d'Or, it was preferably limestone . For the aqueducts of Yzeron, the Brévenne and Gier, it was essentially gneiss , mica schists and granites 43 .At the bottom of the trench channel, the footing was constructed from two piers which delimited a rubble blocking 44 .If the necessary material necessarily have a local origin, the quantities required are huge, in some works behind it is not necessarily that of the place where the work of art is realized. And arches of the Air Flat, Chaponost, whose stones are a clear gneiss regular foliation of 85% and a gray and pink microgneiss 15%, unlike the local substrate 45 . At Mornant, if part of the channel is made with stones whose potential deposits were located within 500 to 3500 meters 46 , there are also the massive granite, no trace of which is traceable to poximité 47 .The masonry of the channel vault was designed to prevent formation of concretions . Indeed, sections revealed during excavations conducted between 1990 and 2010 revealed the formation of calcium deposits in the only aqueduct des Monts d'Or, without being able to date the filing of the use phase or of the abandonment of the book and stagnant waters 48 .Binder [ edit | edit the code ]The Roman mortar was a mortar lime fat and air, produced by white limestone calcination 49 .Type of equipment [ change | modify the code ]Several techniques have been used to assemble the elements forming the aqueduct structure.Regular [ edit | edit the code ]In general, called for structures to support larger structures and more constrained (arcades, bridges siphons) is the opus quadratum (stonework carved parallelepipeds regular rectangles) which was preferred, with variations : "big machine" for stones larger than 60 centimeters (up to 1.5 meters approximately) seat height; "unit means" for stones whose largest dimension was between 20 and 50 centimeters ; Finally, "small device" for stones whose dimensions do not exceed 20 centimeters ; finally, opus latericium for the particular case of brick structures 50 .Irregular [ edit | edit the code ]For the vast majority of the plot, however, the stone was not necessary, the height of an entire book trench or tunnel being, as we have seen, less than four meters. The structures could then be made of uncut stone, simply united by mortar. For various assemblies roughly stones, one obtained a incertum opus : if they were flat stones placed on the cob in a binder mortar, there was talk of opus spicatum .Channel coating [ edit | edit the code ]Coating the channel consisted of a thick layer of cement, the bottom and sides of the channel were coated. A survey in the Gallo-Roman aqueduct of Augustodunum indicates a thickness of eighteen centimeters. The flashing was aqueducts in a quarter circle circular connector with a radius of about ten centimeters was the joint between the vertical walls and the bottom note 1 . The presence of the flashing prevented that there were infiltrations between plaster and wall; these have caused swelling and a coating breakdown and eventual destruction of the pier 44 .Lead [ edit | edit the code ]As seen above, lead was used for traps. The siphons required a considerable amount of metal that unlike the stone could not be extracted on site (small deposits exist in the valley or in the Brévenne Drill, but the key was imported from Britain or Spain) 52 , 53 . Camille Germain Montauzan estimates the required weight of lead for four aqueducts to the west of Lyon between 10 000 and 15 000 tonnes 54 , but Burdy amounts to 40 000 tonnes 52 .Protection of works [ edit | edit the code ]Colour photograph of an engraved stone bearing a Latin text.Pierre Chagnon, witness protection laws aqueduct.Aqueducts, as a "public good" , were specially protected by its own laws. A stone, called "Chagnon stone" , was exhumed in Saint-Romain-en-Jarez 55 , 56 . It bears an inscription referring to Emperor Hadrian:" Ex auctoritate imp (eratoris) Caes (aris) Trajani Hadriani Aug (usti) nemini Arandi, Serendi pangendive juice is intra spalium id quod agri iutelae duclus is destinatum(Under the authority of the Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, the right is not given to anyone plowing, sowing or planting in this area of land which is for the protection of the aqueduct) 57 . "A system of fines, confiscations and property losses regulated the various violations of the voluntary or involuntary deterioration of the aqueduct 58 .However, at the end of the Roman Empire, with the abandonment of both the rules governing compliance with networks, the loss of forces responsible for enforcing these rules, and the escheat of Lyon, especially senior neighborhoods, looters are tempted by the theft of materials, particularly lead. Saracen invasions in the viii th century completed the ruin buildings; Lead is widely used in medieval construction, traps were systematically looted until it does not remain a trace of today 40 .References [ change | modify the code ]Notes [ edit | edit the code ]↑ This device is in bevel or chamfer on the earlier work of the Monts d'Or 51References [ change | modify the code ]↑ John Burdy 2008 , "The old studies" , p. 23.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "Historical Overview" , p. 24.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "The old studies" , p. 25.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "The old studies" , p. 27.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , Introduction, p. 4.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , Introduction, p. 5.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , Introduction, p. 2.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter I - Historical Overview" , pp. 13-39.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter I - Historical Overview" , pp. 16.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "The Aqueduct of Mont d'Or" , p. 35.↑ a , b , c and d Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter V - § II. - Flow measurement and distribution, "p. 345.↑ a , b , c , d and e Jean Burdy 2008 , "The aqueducts of Lugdunum" , p. 33.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter II - §II. - Augustus, Agrippa and Drusus at Lyons. The first two aqueducts. " , P. 21 & 22.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter II - § III. - Drawing of the aqueduct of Craponne " , p. 64.↑ a and b Jean Burdy 2008 , "The aqueduct of Yzeron" , p. 36.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.3.2, "Anomalies and repairs" , p. 115.↑ the same height as the tank of the trunnions, that is to say more than twelve meters).↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter II - § III. - Drawing of the aqueduct of Craponne. " , P. 75.↑ John Burdy, " Pre-inventory of artistic monuments and Resources of the Rhone " , on Water in Lyon (accessed 30 September 2013 ) .↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter II - § III. - From Tiberius to Flavian. Third aqueduct of Claudius. "P. 26 & 27.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.1.4, "Foundations: the passages buried ' , pp. 62.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter II - § IV. - The Antonine. Fourth aqueduct under Hadrian. Rise and Fall of Lyon " , p. 34 & 35.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , I.3.3, "The state of conservation of the sections addressed" , p. 32.↑ a and b Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter II - § VI. - The aqueducts of the peninsula. " , P. 136-141.↑ a and b Jean Burdy 2008 , "The trench channel" , p. 56.↑ a and b Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter IV - § III. - Underground constructions " , p. 281 & 282. Reference error: Beacon invalid; the name "Montauzan_pages_281_.26_282" is defined multiple times with different content↑ John Burdy 2008 , "The trench channel" , p. 59.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.3.1, "along with profiles and through" , p. 99.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.3.1, "along with profiles and through" , p. 100.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.3.1, "along with profiles and through" , p. 101.↑ a and b Jean Burdy 2008 , "Falls", p. 75.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "The trench channel" , p. 98 & 99.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "Bridges and Roads" , p. 65.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "Bridges and Roads" , p. 68.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.1.3, "Foundations: air passages" , p. 58.↑ a , b and c Jean Burdy 2008 , "Drains" , p. 82.↑ a and b Jean Burdy 2008 , "Lugdunum: a little geography" , p. 12.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "Drains" , p. 87.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter III - § III. - Traps. " , P. 182.↑ a and b Jean Burdy 2008 , "Drains" , p. 88.↑ a and b Jean Burdy 2008 , "The bridge-siphon the Gier aqueduct: an exceptional architecture" , p. 92 & 93.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "The bridge-siphon the Gier aqueduct: an exceptional architecture" , pp. 91.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter IV - § II. - Construction materials. " , P. 277-279.↑ a and b Lætitia Borau , " New Study of the Gallo-Roman aqueduct Montjeu to Augustodunum (Autun, Saône-et-Loire) ," Archaeological Journal of East Archaeological Society of Eastern, n o Tome 58 , 1 st December 2009 , P. 461-476 ( ISBN 978-2-915544-13-8 , ISSN 1266-7706 , read online ) .↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.2.1, "Building materials" , p. 64.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.2.1, "Building materials" , p. 65.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.2.1, "Building materials" , p. 66.↑ Macabéo & Coquidé 2010 , II.2.4, "Hedges and hydraulic coating" , p. 95.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter IV - § II. - Construction materials. " , P. 258-273.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter IV - § I. - exposed buildings. " , P. 227-229.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter IV - § III. - Buildings in the basement - I. - Canal covered trench. " , P. 281.↑ a and b Jean Burdy 2008 , "Building materials" , p. 108.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter III - § III. - Traps. " , P. 206.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter III - § III. - Traps. " , P. 205.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter VI - § III. - Acts and Regulations. " , P. 393.↑ John Burdy 2008 , "The aqueduct of Gier: a protected space" , p. 109.↑ Camille Germain Montauzan 1908 , "Chapter II - §V. - Track of the aqueduct of Gier. " , P. 109.↑ Sextus Julius Frontinus 100 , p. 129.References [ change | modify the code ]Document used for writing A document used as a source for writing this article.[Sextus Julius Frontinus 100] Sextus Julius Frontinus , De Aquis Urbis Romœ , Rome, 100 130 p. ( Read online ), p. 129Document used for writing [Camille Germain Montauzan 1908] Camille Germain Montauzan , Roman aqueducts of Lyon: Comparative study of Roman archeology. PhD thesis, Paris, Ernest Leroux Editor 1908 496 p. ( ASIN B001C94UG8 , read online )Collective work, The Roman aqueducts of Lyon, The Swing-plow, Lyon, 1988Document used for writing [John Burdy 2008] John Burdy , Roman aqueducts of Lyon , Lyon, The Swing-plow, 2008 136 pp. ( ISBN 9782729706838 )Document used for writing [Macabéo & Coquidé 2010] Ghislaine Macabéo and Catherine Coquidé , " The ancient aqueducts of Lyon: the contribution of preventive archeology (1991-2007) " archaeological Eastern Review , Archaeological Society of Eastern, n o Volume 59-2, December 15, 2010 , P. 447-504 ( ISSN 1266-7706 , read online )See also [ edit | edit the code ]On the other Wikimedia projects:Ancient aqueducts of Lyon , on Wikimedia Commons Ancient aqueducts of Lyon , on WikisourceRelated articles [ edit | edit the code ]LugdunumAqueduct of the Golden MountainsAqueduct of YzeronAqueduct BrévenneGier aqueductSarrasinièresSanctuary of CybèleExternal links [ edit | edit the code ]Roland Outhier, " Archéolyon: Roman aqueducts " , the Swing-plow Association (accessed 10 March 2015 )" Mount aqueduct Path of Gold to .kml size " , Lyon History, June 8, 2009 (accessed 10 March 2015 )

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